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305 9 Indian Higher Education Devesh Kapur 9.1 Introduction If physical capital—its growth and distribution—was central to debates on economic development in the twentieth century, human capital increas- ingly occupies center stage (Kapur and Crowley 2008). While much of the attention has been on primary education, tertiary education is increasingly receiving greater attention. However, the very promise of higher education for developing countries is also making this a politically contentious issue. Because universities infl uence the minds of young

Problems of Morality and Justice

I Anyone for Higher Education? generally write books and articles by first finding a I proper title. The title then becomes a leitmotif for the content and tone of the presentation. A “witty” (perhaps) book on theology was entitled God and the New Haven Railway: And Why Neither One Is Doing Very Well. As is appropriate to a religious work, the title came to me in a dream. I have been hoping for a similar divine titular inspiration for a book on higher education, but I doubt that the deity is all that interested in the subject. Worse yet, I suspect that

269 8 Higher Education in China Complement or Competition to US Universities? Haizheng Li 8.1 Introduction In 2006, a total of 134,000 Chinese students went abroad to further their education, a number almost as large as the total number of new interna- tional students (142,923) coming to the United States from all countries.1 Chinese students accounted for 11.6 percent of the total number of inter- national students in the United States in that year. In recent years, China has ranked fi rst, or second to India, in numbers of students studying in the United

8 Public Choices in Public Higher Education John M. Quigley and Daniel L. Rubinfeld 8.1 Introduction Public institutions of higher education have grown in prominence in the United States over the past 200 years. By the mid-l980s, total public enroll- ments were roughly twice the level of private enrollments. ’ Important as they are, these aggregate trends mask the substantial and systematic state-by-state variation in public and private enrollments that is the primary focus of this paper. The outputs associated with public higher education are

I Mainstream institutions of higher education, which in the United States have a dominant orientation that is white and secular, are often thought of as “liberal” bastions. The liberal ideal can be identified with a belief in the moral and political equality of persons, regardless of gender, color, creed, or nationality; a commitment to reason- based methods of inquiry and argu- ment; intellectual and creative independence from religious and political authority; and concern about fairness and socioeconomic inequality, in con- trast to sheer self- interest

sure, influenced by Plato and E I G H T Modeling Justice in Higher Education E R I N I . K E L LY 136 / Erin I. Kelly Jean- Jacques Rousseau and also by well- established examples of university systems in Europe, especially England. Still, a liberal arts model seems to have evolved in broader form in the United States, penetrating secondary schools to some extent, as well as being thoroughly established in many American universities and colleges and emphasizing, more than in Europe, a participatory, democratic ideal. In emphasizing liberal arts education as a

What’s wrong with this picture? The American system of higher education may be the finest in the world. The numbers at least count in its favor. The proportion of our populace who pursue higher learning is the highest in the world. The Bu- reau of Labor Statistics projects that teaching at the postsecondary level is expected to constitute the second-largest-growing occupation for the decade after 2002.1 Conceived as an industry, higher education appears healthier than any other part of the American economy. It has also been emulated the world over. Whatever the