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Whether there is such a thing as human nature is an important question. As this chapter makes clear, looked at from the biological perspective or the be- havioral perspective, there clearly is a human nature. But this is not the sense of human nature that many people have in mind. Another view of human nature is that there is innate knowledge that all humans are born with that provides our species with a psychic unity. In this chapter, we consider and reject this latter notion of human nature, while maintaining the former. What Would a Human Nature Be? Line

72 c h a p t e r t w o Human Nature Experienced AdAmic AwAkENiNg: A gENEAlogy in “de l’experience,” michel de montaigne discusses his kidney stones in a way that sheds light on one of the greatest differences separating fallen from unfallen life: the fact that Edenic pleasure does not exist in dialectical tension with pain. “But is there anything so sweet,” montaigne asks, “as that sudden change, when from extreme pain, by the voiding of my stone, i come to recover as if by lightning the beautiful light of health, so free and so full, as happens in our

C h a p t e r 2 Human Nature in Processual Thinking1 Of the three lines of potential development mentioned at the close of the preceding chapter, the most easily pursued is the issue of individual histori- cality itself. The chapter noted a number of forces conducing to the mainte- nance of continuity “along the lineage of an individual”: physical or biological objects, memory, and deliberate record retention. And it seems quite obvious that these forces are essential for understanding the actual continuity over time— the “thingness”— of social groups like

3 HUMAN NATURE AND NATURAL LAW Montesquieu introduces The Spirit of the Laws with a brief Preface in which he discusses the nature and intention of the work. The Preface opens, as we have noted, with a defensive denial of any intention to offend anyone, especially the rulers of Montesquieu's own country. He then warns the reader against the temptation to give an unfavorable misinterpretation to what is contained in The Spirit of the Laws. It appears that Montesquieu's concern with the possibility of dangerous misinterpretation is what leads him to

4 Human Nature and Motivation in Classical Theory I am arguing for a theory of human motivations for action that is grounded in human nature. Lest readers think this is a novel approach for sociol- ogy, this chapter examines the work of the discipline’s founding fathers— Durkheim, Marx, and Weber— on human nature and motivations. We see that they all believed in particular views of human nature from which they developed their larger theories about motivated action and its relation to so- ciety. Each held explicit notions— rooted in relevant philosophical

Chapter Five Scientists as the Model of Human Nature In 1963, Bernard Berelson published a collection of essays by leading scholars in the behavioral sciences. The essays found their origin in a series of radio broadcasts for Voice of America, the radio-based propa- ganda arm of the United States Information Agency. These programs aimed both to cover the immediate topic at hand and to carry out the general mandate of the Voice of America—showing the virtues of the American way to people around the world.1 To accomplish this dual aim, the programs’ more

Chapter Eight A Fractured Politics of Human Nature This book has examined the culture of open-mindedness of the early Cold War period. This culture treated the open-minded American, the open-minded intellectual, and human nature as interchangeable. It was because of open-mindedness’s multiple roles that it not only marked the boundaries of acceptable centrist political views but also offered the possibility of applying knowledge about one domain of human affairs to another. For this reason intellectuals from Margaret Mead to Daniel Bell to Clark Kerr could

chapter seventeen Final Thoughts: Nature and Human Nature Glenn Sandiford, Reuben P. Keller, and Marc Cadotte Humans have caused, debated, and studied biological invasions for centuries. Along the way, we have accumulated experience and knowledge about invasive species, and incorporated this ever-expanding body of information into policy choices at all levels, from local to interna- tional. That policy history has fluctuated widely, reflecting the ebb-and- flow of attitudes about introduced species (Pauly 1996), but it does show an overall direction since

Their Conflicting Views of Human Nature