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Personal and Collective Transformations in Eastern European Migration

innovation as well as R&D activities. The inclusion of demographic controls generally raises the immigrant associa- tion with innovation activities, suggesting that immigrant owners tend on average to have other characteristics that are negatively associated with product and process innovation. Demographic controls attenuate the immi- grant associations with R&D activities, however. Diff ering motivations, levels of start- up capital, and/or choices of indus- try explain much of the immigrant association with innovation activities but not R&D activities, as evidenced

, ethnic markets, and immigrant associations. None of these were imagined as dis- turbing the taken- for- granted, the deep and unchanging level of cultural values, which “were assumed to coincide with the Swedish, with Swed- ishness” (99).20 Swedishness, unlike the multiculturalism brought by the immigrant, involved the capacity to welcome difference while keeping it controlled (segregated, insulated, taken care of by welfare or by adoptive families) until it became “like us.”21 Sweden’s approach to this problem provides a particular response to a common European

in Saul David Alinsky, Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971) and Reveille for Radicals (New York: Vintage Books, 1969). 25. This characterization of the fi eld as focused on recruiting institutions as mem- bers remains accurate, but is beginning to change. In response to the decline of the institutions that once at least tenuously anchored low- income communities in the United States (urban congregations, ethnic and immigrant associations, labor union locals, etc.), some networks created mechanisms for

: Chinese Immigrant Associations in a Western Society. Am- sterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Liu, Alan P. L. 1992. “The ‘Wenzhou Model’ of Development and China’s Modernization.” Asian Survey 32 (8): 696 – 711. Livi- Bacci, Massimo. 2001. “Too Few Children, Too Much Family.” Daedalus: Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 130 (3): 139 – 55. Lo, Ming- Cheng M., and Eileen M. Otis. 2003. “Guanxi Civility: Processes, Potentials, and Con- tingencies.” Politics and Society 31: 131– 62. London, C. R. 2013. “Italy’s Productivity Puzzle.” Economist

” to allow Somalis who had not yet attained citizenship to serve. The mayor’s motion failed, but he ap- pointed a Somali woman who was a registered voter and continued his efforts to appoint additional Somalis in other capacities. Under Mayor Gilbert’s leadership, local immigrant organizations also received their fi rst funding from city hall. For the fi rst three years that the African Immigrant Association requested funds for a Somali Inde- pen dence Day festival, the request was denied, along with a quarter to a third of other applicants. In June 2007 Mayor

satisfied these requirements. They started going around to the agencies they knew asking for their help. They soon discovered that any agency, public or private, took it for granted that such requests should be filed only by properly identifiable “immigrant associations.” Although some spaces were available, they were inaccessible to single individuals.6 The women started to consider forming an association that would ful- fill the expectations of the agencies and gain access to the benefits they could distribute. The idea, purely instrumental at first, quickly

Press, 2010), chap. 2; and Daniel Soyer, Jewish Immigrant Associations and American Identity in New York, 1880–1939 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997). 13. In 1880 there were approximately two hundred fifty thousand Jews in the United States. By 1924, that figure had increased to about four million, and over three-quarters of these Jews were eastern Europeans, their children or grandchildren. The census of 1910 recorded 1,051,767 foreign-born people who claimed their mother tongue as “Yiddish or Hebrew” (this almost always meant Yiddish) and 1