innovation as well as R&D activities. The
inclusion of demographic controls generally raises the immigrant associa-
tion with innovation activities, suggesting that immigrant owners tend on
average to have other characteristics that are negatively associated with
product and process innovation. Demographic controls attenuate the immi-
grant associations with R&D activities, however.
Diff ering motivations, levels of start- up capital, and/or choices of indus-
try explain much of the immigrantassociation with innovation activities
but not R&D activities, as evidenced
markets, and immigrantassociations. None of these were imagined as dis-
turbing the taken- for- granted, the deep and unchanging level of cultural
values, which “were assumed to coincide with the Swedish, with Swed-
ishness” (99).20 Swedishness, unlike the multiculturalism brought by the
immigrant, involved the capacity to welcome difference while keeping it
controlled (segregated, insulated, taken care of by welfare or by adoptive
families) until it became “like us.”21 Sweden’s approach to this problem
provides a particular response to a common European
in Saul David Alinsky, Rules for
Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971)
and Reveille for Radicals (New York: Vintage Books, 1969).
25. This characterization of the fi eld as focused on recruiting institutions as mem-
bers remains accurate, but is beginning to change. In response to the decline of
the institutions that once at least tenuously anchored low- income communities in
the United States (urban congregations, ethnic and immigrantassociations, labor
union locals, etc.), some networks created mechanisms for
: Chinese ImmigrantAssociations in a Western Society. Am-
sterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Liu, Alan P. L. 1992. “The ‘Wenzhou Model’ of Development and China’s Modernization.”
Asian Survey 32 (8): 696 – 711.
Livi- Bacci, Massimo. 2001. “Too Few Children, Too Much Family.” Daedalus: Proceedings of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences 130 (3): 139 – 55.
Lo, Ming- Cheng M., and Eileen M. Otis. 2003. “Guanxi Civility: Processes, Potentials, and Con-
tingencies.” Politics and Society 31: 131– 62.
London, C. R. 2013. “Italy’s Productivity Puzzle.” Economist
” to allow Somalis who had not
yet attained citizenship to serve. The mayor’s motion failed, but he ap-
pointed a Somali woman who was a registered voter and continued his
efforts to appoint additional Somalis in other capacities.
Under Mayor Gilbert’s leadership, local immigrant organizations also
received their fi rst funding from city hall. For the fi rst three years that
the African ImmigrantAssociation requested funds for a Somali Inde-
pen dence Day festival, the request was denied, along with a quarter to
a third of other applicants. In June 2007 Mayor
these requirements. They started going around to the agencies they knew
asking for their help. They soon discovered that any agency, public or
private, took it for granted that such requests should be filed only by
properly identifiable “immigrantassociations.” Although some spaces
were available, they were inaccessible to single individuals.6
The women started to consider forming an association that would ful-
fill the expectations of the agencies and gain access to the benefits they
could distribute. The idea, purely instrumental at first, quickly
chap. 2; and Daniel Soyer, Jewish ImmigrantAssociations and American Identity in New York,
1880–1939 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).
13. In 1880 there were approximately two hundred fifty thousand Jews in the United States.
By 1924, that figure had increased to about four million, and over three-quarters of these Jews
were eastern Europeans, their children or grandchildren. The census of 1910 recorded 1,051,767
foreign-born people who claimed their mother tongue as “Yiddish or Hebrew” (this almost
always meant Yiddish) and 1