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* 1 * Independence C h a p t e r 1 The Path to Philosophy in On the Genealogy of Morality and Human, All Too Human On the Genealogy of Morality provides an obvious point of entry into Nietz- sche’s thought. The text is commonly assigned in university courses designed to introduce students to the subjects of philosophy, or political theory, or eth- ics. In that context, the Genealogy off ers a number of concepts, formulas, or doctrines for the student to digest: the contrast between “master morality” and “slave morality”; the problem of “ressentiment”; the

The Political Economy of Judging in Japan

5 The Mosquito Threatens Independence The only nation of the world whose independence could be threatened by a mosquito is the Republic of Cuba. José H. Pazos, “Contribución al estudio de los mosquitos en Cuba” : : : With the end of the occupation government in 1902, Cuba was at last independent, but U.S. concerns about yellow fever powerfully shaped the limits of this inde- pendence. Before relinquishing control over the island, the U.S. government demanded that the new Republic of Cuba agree to maintain the sanitary conditions neces- sary to prevent the

socio- sexual differentiation, and male interactions focus on male age- mates. From the ages of 5 to 15 years, the types of explo- ration, play, associations, and physical maturation differ- entiate young males from female peers. Males depart from the family at an average age of 14 years (fi gure 17.2), and a male’s behavior sets the scene for social and reproduc- tive outcomes over the next 45 years of his lifespan. After independence, the young male explores a variety of feed- ing areas, assesses his power against peers in both relatively friendly and more

C h a p t e r 5 The Era of Independence, 1756–1783 On the afternoon of May 30, 1765, Virginia’s House of Burgesses had nearly finished its spring session, and most of its members had gone home, but one important issue still remained. Virginians had recently learned that the British Parliament had adopted a stamp tax for the American colonies. The law would require an expensive stamp for al- most every kind of official paperwork, from a bill of sale to a court de- cision to a marriage license. Newspapers, college diplomas, and play- ing cards would carry

6 Political Independence and Economic Reform in Slovenia Boris Pleskovic and Jeffrey D. Sachs With the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, twenty new indepen- dent states have emerged where there were previously two. In each of these new states, there is an urgent agenda, including the creation of state institutions (fiscal authority, tax authority, central bank, border control, etc.), macroeco- nomic stabilization, and economic transformation from a socialist economy to a market economy. These momentous changes are generally being carried out

7 Toward a Party-Alternation Theory of Comparative Judicial Independence In this book, we have focused on promotions as incentives. For pro- motions matter: carrots are as much incentives as sticks, and the withholding of a reward can be as effective as the infliction of a punishment. Even where members of an organization cannot be expelled or have their salaries reduced, if they care about future promotions they will work under the potential in- fluence of whoever decides personnel policy. Thus, despite the rhetoric of independence, nations in whose courts

18 WORLD WAR I AND THE PROBLEM OF POLAND'S INDEPENDENCE World War I broke out in 1914 as the result of numerous and various antagonisms which had run deep in Europe for decades. It will be enough to recall the conflicting Balkan aspirations of Russia and Austro-Hungary; the Anglo-German naval armament race; the French revanchist feelings over Alsace-Lorraine; and the Jugoslav Irredenta, which armed the assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. If there was a major European problem which did not influence the outbreak of August 1914, it was the Polish one

357 7 Great Infl ation and Central Bank Independence in Japan Takatoshi Ito 7.1 Introduction The Bank of Japan (BOJ) was born in 1882, only after the new Meiji government experimented unsuccessfully with transplanting the national banking system (without a central bank) from the United States. The gov- ernment, after some unpleasant infl ation under the national banking system, decided to adopt the central banking system modeled after the Belgium central bank. During more than 125 years of its uninterrupted history, the Bank of Japan saw three episodes

110 CHAPTER THREE CARTOGRAPHY IN THE PRODUCTION (AND SILENCING) OF COLOMBIAN INDEPENDENCE HISTORY, 1807– 1827 Lina del Castillo INTRODUCTION The two maps with which we begin show different parts of South America. A closer look suggests a family resemblance: they both bear the name “Colom- bia.” The continental vision (fig. 3.1), printed in London in 1807 and titled “Colombia Prima or South America,” audaciously argues that “Colombia” was all of South America. The other map (fig. 3.2) is taken from the first na- tional atlas of the independent Colombian