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174 5INDIVIDUALS Group scandals sometimes are complicated. They might require particular knowledge of how a particular group works or the vagaries of corporate law. But individual scandal stories are often tailor- made for identifi cation with the subjects, and as such often have broader appeal. I divide the stories of individuals into four categories: entertainment celebrities, sports stars, psychodrama, and politicians and bureaucrats. The fi rst two are about stars. The “psychodrama” category is slightly diff erent, as it involves ordinary people who

Child Care, Education, Medical Care, and Long-Term Care in America

Closure: The Individual What kind of construct is the individual? How does one establish the individual’s place in thought and life? What scope, what kind of framework, can reveal the purview of a concept so slippery, woolly, and seemingly ever- present? How do individuals ground themselves, and to what end does such grounding operate? To what degree can one speak of individuality as a category of thought, of medi- cine and medical care, of politics? How would the under- standing of individuality be defi ned by medical care and biological theory? In this

xiii ROSTER OF INDIVIDUALS THOSE WHOSE names follow participated in one degree or another in the long dispute over human antiquity in North America. Th is is not a comprehensive list, omitting as it does mention of those participating before the dispute got started, as well as the anthropologists, archaeologists, and others who throughout the long years of controversy occasionally commented from the sidelines. Each entry provides the name, birth and death dates, education, and a brief identifying description of the occupation and affi liation of the

THE INDiviDUAL ACTivisTS To know who you are is to be oriented in moral space, a space in which ques- tions arise about what is good and bad, what is worth doing and what not, what has meaning and importance for you and what is trivial and secondary.... We come here to one of the most basic aspirations of human beings, the need to be connected to, or in contact with, what they see as good, or of crucial impor- tance, or of fundamental value. And how could it be otherwise, once we see that this orientation in relation to the good is essential to being a

C h a p t e r 1 The Historicality of Individuals1 I shall here argue that we should reinstate individuals as an important force in history. By this I do not mean a return to great- man history, or great- woman history for that matter. To be sure, social structure can and sometimes does confer on particular individuals extraordinary power to shape the future. But the crucial explanatory question in such cases is not the quality or actions of those individuals, interesting as these might be. Rather, it is the conditions under which such social structures

377 12.1 Introduction Many economic models are based on the forward-looking behavior of economic agents. Although it is often said that “expectations” about fu- ture events are important in these models, it is the probability distributions of future events that influence the models. For example, an individual’s consumption and saving decisions are believed to depend upon concerns regarding future interest rates, the likelihood of dying, and the risk of sub- stantial future medical expenditures. According to our theories, decision makers have subjective

TWO The Individual and Tradition • • • • If, as I will argue, curriculum needs to be rethought in order to foster students' entry into living traditions of knowledge-in- action rather than static traditions of knowledge-out-of-context, what is the nature of such traditions in individual and cultural life? What does it mean to enter into culturally significant tradi- tions of knowing and doing? By examining the relationships be- tween individuals and the traditions of knowing and doing amid which they live, this chapter provides a framework for thinking

CHAPTBR II The Individual Arts The European artist, then as now, was likely to be more curious about the works produced by his opposite numben in Asia than by exotic flora, fauna, and miscellaneous oddities. But the Asian artistic creations available, even in the greatest of the collections, were not numerous. Access to the collections was not always easy for the artists to obtain, and very few artists had collections of their own. It was fairly simple for any interested artist to see and study Chinese porcelains or lacquerware, for they were widely