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Introduction                                  hj Every society, regardless of time or place, has considered some of its mem- bers to be mentally ill. For most of human history, mental illness was identi- fied with madness and labels of mental illness were reserved for extreme states of bizarre, inappropriate, and withdrawn behavior.1 When specialized asylums arose to treat the mentally ill at the end of the seventeenth century in Europe and the beginning of the nineteenth century in the United States, they managed a small number

Conclusion                                     hj Prototypical classifications of mental illnesses are generally, and perhaps even universally, rooted in extreme deviations from normal psychological functioning. Throughout history, social groups have judged that certain kinds of phenomena lie outside the boundaries of sanity and have labeled these conditions “mental illnesses” regardless of the particular names they call them or the particular frameworks they use to classify them (Horwitz a; Jackson ). Historically

2 mental illness: making myths or genuine disorders? No discussion of whether mental illness is real could occur without men- tion of Thomas Szasz, whose Myth of Mental Illness (1974) set the tone of the debate over mental illness for years.1 At the time of his first writ- ing, there was considerable scholarship responding to his views.2 Even today, when the biological view of mental illness is clearly in the ascen- dancy, scholars continue to respond to Szasz, some defending and some critiquing his work, and some using his ideas as a launching point for a

beginning of the twentieth century, mental illnesses were limited to a small number of very serious disorders. Until recently, discrete disease entities had a minor role in psychiatry and allied mental health professions. The classification of a large and heterogeneous group of conditions as “mental illnesses” emerged from a particular historical context. This chap- ter outlines the dynamic system of psychiatric thought that preceded the development of the diagnostic view of mental illness that now dominates the mental health arena. It shows how dynamic psychiatry changed

illnesses each year. They also show that about half of the popu- lation has suffered from the most common types of illnesses at some point in their lives (USDHHS ). Virtually all articles about particular ill- nesses that appear in psychiatric and medical journals routinely cite figures that stem from these community studies to indicate their widespread preva- lence.1 The assumption that mental disorders are extremely common has also diffused from community studies to portrayals of mental illness in the me- dia. An article “Fear Itself ” that appeared in the New York

5 From Madness to Mental Illness, 1928² 1935 If little has been said about neuropsychiatry thus far, it is simply because the Western discipline has played little role in our narrative up until this point. Unlike in Japan, where psychiatric study had become fashionable from as early as the last quarter of the nineteenth century, neuropsychiatric medicine had been slow to take hold among the Chinese. Psychiatric and neurological services did exist in the country, but their scope was extraordinarily limited and resources were few.1 And though sporadic texts

State, Society, and the Insane in Modern China
A History of Caring for America's Troubled Children
A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America