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Personal and Collective Transformations in Eastern European Migration

– 79, 183, 198, 204 male gaze, 98, 107, 188– 89, 233n11 “marginal man,” 241n25 marriage, 119– 43; to immigrant men, 202, 232– 33n7; to Italian men, 132– 43; mis - tress status vs., 126– 39; role of age in, 139– 43 Marx, Karl, 183– 84 “memory machines,” 35 Menjivar, Cecilia, 181 Mexico, 12– 13, 25 migrant pioneers, 4– 15, 177, 179– 81, 205, 223n1; male, 12– 13, 15, 16; women, 11– 15, 16, 18– 25, 177, 241n24 Moldova, 20, 22, 24, 34– 35, 49, 64, 92, 106, 119, 126, 154– 71, 195, 196, 210, 224n7, 228n4 Moldova (organization), 167– 71 “moral economy,” 235– 36n13

inter- national mobility, migrant pioneers are seldom drawn from the lowest strata of the sending society. This is precisely the case for nearly all the women pioneers in Alpinetown, who previously had been members of the educated middle class in their formerly Soviet spaces. Yet the incorporation of newly arrived immigrants in advanced econ- omies usually takes place at the lowest rung of the receiving social hier- archy, through the filling of positions defined as 3D: dirty, dangerous, or demeaning.12 The women of Alpinetown were employed at the very bottom of

become precious public resources. Since the very beginning, they discovered that migration both forced and made it possible for them to be different women. Women Pioneers A striking feature of the group of migrant pioneers I studied is that all were women. In the first wave of Eastern European migrants arriving in Alpine- town, there was not a single man. The size of the group grew quickly, with new migrants arriving every week, virtually all women. After four or five years, when the number of women had already reached several hun- dred, I counted no more than

and MacDonald (1964). It has been explored and systematized by Douglas Massey’s pathbreaking analy- ses of the dynamics of Mexican migration to the United States; see Massey et al. (1990). 8. On the connections between migrating social networks and occupational concentration in specific niches, see Tilly (2000) and Tilly and Brown (1967). 9. See Petersen (1958). 10. The arrival of pioneers does not automatically imply significant new waves of arrivals. In fact, not all migrant pioneers trigger subsequent arrivals. Even when they do, pioneers often filter