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249partic ipat ion , concludEd Participation, Concluded She had spent a minute or so in vainly pursuing a large bright thing, that looked sometimes like a doll and sometimes like a work- box. Carroll, Through the Looking Glass, 103–4 Participation looked like a doll in 2008. The world was awash in enthusiasm for the power of participation and with people fired up about citizen science projects and free software and hackathons and couch surfing and crowdsourcing. In 2018, it looks like a work- box full of pathologies: alt- right racists, twitter trolls

1partic ipat ion , introducEd Participation, Introduced Introduction “Participation in what?” This is the first question everyone asks: “Participation in what?” Anything. Everything. Politics, community, the state, work, home, school, church, the village, the town meeting, the nation, the prefecture, art, the commune, the collective, the temple, sci- ence, budgeting, finance, decision- making, the internet, unions, lo- cal governance, global governance, the movement . . . everything. And nothing. Participation is an evasive, wily concept, “always in the

136 partic ipat ion , admin is tErEd Participation, Administered June 10, 1969 The Participants are confused. They are in a North Philadelphia settlement house with other residents from around the area— Kensington, Norris Square, the area around Temple University. They are discussing a document that arrived a few weeks earlier called Technical Assistance Bulletin No. 3, sent to them by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. It is subtitled “Subject: Citizen Partic- ipation in Model Cities.” The Participants are also employees. They are the Area

269partic ipat ion , notatEd Participation, Notated Pa r t ic i pa t io n , E x h i b i t e d 1 Rebecca Solnit, “Foreword: Miracles and Obstacles,” in Nathan Schneider, Thank You, Anarchy: Notes from the Occupy Apocalypse (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), ix. 2 Schneider, Thank You, Anarchy, 163. Pa r t ic i pa t io n , I n t r o duc e d 1 Marilyn Strathern, “Reading Relations Backwards,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 20, no. 1 (2014): 3– 19. 2 Initial research was funded by the National Science Foundation (from 2010 to

87partic ipat ion , Employ Ed Participation, Employed October 1947 The Participant is making pajamas and dreaming of change. It is fall in Mar- ion, Virginia, and The Participant is sitting in a meeting with the other six girls from her group— they are, for now, “pajama examiners,” whose job is to “clip threads from the entire garment and examine every seam.”1 It is dull work, but they are all good at it, and they are paid on an “individual incentive system” in which “piece rates are set by time study; one unit is equal to one minute of standard work: 60

295partic ipat ion , rEFErEncEd Participation, Referenced AACOM. “Climbing the Ladder: A Look at Sherry R. Arnstein.” Inside OME 9, nos. 7– 8 (2015). http://www.aacom.org/news- and- events /publications/iome/2015/july- august- 2015/Arnstein- bio. Abbott, Andrew. The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. University of Chicago Press, 2014. Alden, Jenna. “Bottom- up Management: Participative Philosophy and Humanistic Psychology in American Organizational Culture, 1930– 1970.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2012. http

183partic ipat ion , dE VElopEd Participation, Developed Around 1994 The Participant is in a village in “Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Lesotho, Mali, Mexico, Mongolia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, the United States, Zambia, Zimba- bwe, and elsewhere.”1 The Participant is a contraption of people and paper. The Participant is saturated in the latest development theories and critiques from elite Amer- ican and

319partic ipat ion , indE xEd Participation, Indexed Pag e num be r s fol l ow e d by “m ” r e f e r to m a rg ina l note s. Abbé, Ernst, 95m action research, 98– 99, 104– 5, 197, 207m, 208, 212– 14, 214m administrative reform in the United States, 160– 61 Africare, 225m Agile software development, 114, 135 algorithms, 4– 5, 13, 26, 194– 95, 242– 44, 251, 257, 292n4; tool kits and, 242– 44 Alinsky, Saul, 118 animation rurale, 199, 203 Anonymous, 252– 54 anti- politics machine (Ferguson), 154– 55, 230 apparatus, 37, 41– 44 Aquinas, Thomas, 22, 30m, 58

ixpartic ipat ion , E xhib it Ed Participation, Exhibited Paradigmatic Bibliography We are open, they are crowdsourced, you are engaged, we are the media. I moderate, he likes, they dig, she tweets and retweets. @everybody Here we come! I no longer simply consume, I democratize innovation, she prosumes, and he produses. We are what democracy looks like. You are fans who write your own fiction, they are users who hack and mod their technologies, we are civic scientists who produce our own knowledge. She is a maker. He revolts, you critique, they

265partic ipat ion , acknowlEdgEd Participation, Acknowledged Why do we have acknowledgments sections? In part because we continue to insist that the work of individual authorship is para- mount, and the rest is but participation. That is perniciously false in this case. Nonetheless, convention demands that my name goes on the book, everyone else’s names go here, and they are as follows: Goldsmiths College; University of Oxford; Texas A&M University, Geography Department; University of Southern California, Civic Paths working group; University of California