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263 10 early continental philosophy of science Babette Babich During the years leading up to and aft er 1890–1930, the continental concep- tion of science had a far broader scope than the anglophone notion of science today. Even today, the German term Wissenschaft embraces not only the natural and the social sciences, including economics,1 but also the full panoply of the so-called humanities, including the theoretical study of art and theology, both important in the nineteenth century for, among other things, the formation of the life sciences.2

193 9 developments in philosophy of science and mathematics Dale Jacquette i. age of romance, age of revolution Nineteenth- century science and mathematics is an erratic continuation of the monumental innovations of the Enlightenment. Th e eighteenth century laid the groundwork for so much of what was to happen in the late modern period, and was in turn prepared for these advances by the remarkable progress in the new observational and pure and applied mathematical sciences of the seventeenth century.1 Philosophy of science in this early period was not

CHAPTER THIRTEEN Toward an Error-Statistical Philosophy of Science IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTERS I have attempted to set out the main ingre- dients for a non-Bayesian philosophy of science that may be called the error-statistical account. The account utilizes and builds upon several methods and models from classical and Neyman-Pearson statistics, but in ways that depart from what is typically associated with these ap- proaches enough to warrant some new label. Because the chief feature that my approach retains from Neyman-Pearson methods is the cen- trality of

1 Science, Philosophy of Science, and the Science of Science The most difficult job for the historian is to develop a double vision, seeing his subjects' choices both as they saw them and as he, the retrospective outsider, sees them, free of the pressures that made them gasp and rage. He does not increase wisdom by laughter at their folly, by indignation at their tyranny, or by sentimental substitutes for ridicule and anger. The historian's scorn, rage, or facile charity are really self-congratulation at bottom. David Joravsky, The Lysenko Affair The

S E V E N Political Foundations of the Philosophies of Science of Popper, Kuhn, and Polanyi If political concerns and social values played a role in the writings on sci- ence by Polanyi and Bernal in the 1930s, these infl uences equally infused the writing of other historians and philosophers of science in the mid- twentieth century, with Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn foremost among them. By the mid-1950s, Popper, Kuhn, and Polanyi all had parted com- pany with the then-dominant scientifi c philosophies of empiricism, induc- tivism, and logical positivism. They

1 The Relations between the History and the Philosophy of Science Previously unpublished Isenberg Lecture, delivered at Michigan State University, 1 March 1968; revised October 1976. The subject on which I have been asked to speak today is the rela- tions between the history and the philosophy of science. For me, more than for most, it has deep personal as well as intellectual sig- nificance. I stand before you as a practicing historian of science. Most of my students mean to be historians, not philosophers. I am a member of the American Historical, not

a more politicized engagement with how envi- ronmental cause- and- effect statements are made? This chapter contributes to the interface of political ecology and science stud- ies by exploring how political ecology may employ more politicized explanations tim forsyth politicizing environmental explanations what can political ecology learn from sociology and philosophy of science? 1 32 | tim for syth for environmental problems. By so doing, this chapter also argues that politi- cal ecology should engage more constructively with debates within philosophy of

Science, Complexity, and Policy
Some Key Controversies in the Philosophy of Science
An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science