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The Endurance of Artisanal Values in North America
Hume and the Rise of Capitalism
A True Tale of Nuns, Prostitutes, and Murderers in Seventeenth-Century Italy

book is a direct outgrowth of my prior studies of knowledge and society in early modern England. Here the links are not empirical but thematic. Late modern American industrial scientists and venture capitalists are not English gentlemen; Southern Californian pub- lic universities are not seventeenth-century (or even twenty-first-century) Preface ∗ xvi i Cambridge colleges; networking entrepreneurs form very different social configurations from conversational polite society in a Restoration Lon- don drawing-room. Yet change the focus of engagement and many of the same

courtly styles of cookery and table service within a wider French polite society. Dishes became less substantial and more costly, and fewer spices and seasonings were used in their composition. Nouvelle cuisine was based around the extraction and 1. Académie Françoise 1694, 1:528; Franklin 1887–1902, 6:137–39. 2. See, e.g., Bayley 1991, pt. 1; Sekora 1977; Brewer and Porter 1992; Brewer 1997; Berry 1994. the philosophical palate 197 concentration of alimentary essences, and the provocation of appetites by the masterly manipulation of fl avors. Its skill was the

gallantry would ultimately bring this aristocratic concept into disfavor: Dubos, for instance, follows Boileau in deriding it as “the aff ectation of expressing feelings to women out of politeness when one has none.”  While disparaging fops whose worldly success was due only to their “scintillating imagination, agreeable conversation, and light reading,” the philosophes nonetheless generally adhered to the norms of polite society that dictated etiquette in the salons and correspondence. Th e alliance between gens de lettres and le monde went well beyond a

Th e Revaluation would have made great reality TV— Keeping Up with the Bourgeoisie. As it was, the drama was performed at fi rst especially in Holland, and only aft er 1700 or so in England. Th e por- trayal of fi nancial markets on the English stage, for example, spread its technical language to the common tongue.1 Th e Spectator (1711– 1712, merely) of Richard Steele and Joseph Addison was the voice of the bourgeoisie introduced to polite society. It spawned numerous imitators, for instance in Holland and Spain. Addison in particular was, as Basil Willey

used their right to comment upon Buffon's character as exemplifying the moral, scientific, and stylistic claims they found within the work.5 Many of these assessments also reflected Buf- fon's high visibility in polite society; as a philosophe, he attended nu- merous polite salons in the 1750s and 1760s, and his presence was 4 E. C. Spary, "The Nut and the Orange: Natural History, Natural Religion, and Republican- ism in Late Eighteenth-Century France," unpublished paper; id., "'Nature' of Enlightenment." 5 A thorough study of readings of the Histoire nature

wished to count as members of polite society, were not exempt from the constraints of taste and politeness. Looking at how authoritative knowledge about food was constituted thus leads us into the heart of the problem of how social as well as epistemologi- 16. Dierig, Lachmund, and Mendelsohn 2003, 2; also Harkness 2007. 17. The major learned establishments of the capital were Royal creations of the seven- teenth century: the Académie Françoise in 1635; the Jardin du Roi in 1640; the Petite Académie, which later became the Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles

and, 40, 47, 58, 115; and domestication of Orient, 49– index 209 51, 56; and escape from polite society, 49; fascination with Muslim motifs, 46, 184n47; gendering of space within, 46– 48, 47f, 53, 54f, 55f, 185n67; interest in Orient-related goods, 34–41, 41f, 45–51, 47f, 48f, 75–76; Japan as model, 34–37, 35f; Orientalist tendency of, 7, 29, 30, 34–42, 41f, 45–51, 47f, 48f, 50, 56, 75–76, 170; prescribed role of women, 39–40, 53–55, 183n36; as reflection on sense of self and the Other, 30, 50–51 interracial couples, 74–75, 76f Irving, Washington, 46