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156 c h a p t e r f i v e Historicizing Psychology Post-1960 critiques of the historiography of psychology suggest that the retrospective construction of the discipline within a “long” his- tory and on a triumphant course toward scientificity is a late nineteenth- century invention generated by the wish to legitimate a supposedly young science. Although such critiques are valid, the retrospective construction of psychology dates in fact from the eighteenth century, when it emerged in the context of the history of philosophy, and contributed to bringing

78 F o u r National Psychology The development of “national mysticism,” even if based on earlier sources, should be seen as one of the prime ex- pressions of the modernization of Kabbalah. Though this development had several manifestations, for our purposes I focus on the vast discourse on the restriction of the di- vinity of the soul to Jews, and the subsequent doctrine of the divine national soul. Seemingly, national psychology mitigates against comparison, yet it should actually be seen as a sign of the increasing influence of the rise of the modern

c h a p t e r s e v e n Evolutionary Psychology Conservatives, Liberals, Nature, and Nurture The pursuit of prosperity is the most powerful, social, and politi- cal force in this country. It recruits even those to its cause who have fared poorly in it.1 Quite often there are enough voters among the poor and in the lower middle class who would rather dream of dis- tant prosperity than benefi t from greater equality today to hand conservatives the presidency or control of Congress. Although they are the most trusted promoters of prosperity, con- servatives

S I X After Psychology The crisis came in the year after college. Hailey was suddenly on her own and in a whole new environment, faced with day- to- day responsibilities and obligations she had never had to handle alone. Everywhere she turned, she felt anxious and self- conscious. Work was especially diffi cult. She got nervous every time she had to make a phone call. She had trouble meeting new people, chatting with coworkers in the hallways, and going out with them after work. She felt out of place and worried that others believed that she was acting

c h a p t e r o n e The “Century of Psychology” In 774, an article in a Swiss encyclopedia wondered, “What science or art deserving of our attention does not have psychology as its foundation, its source and its guide?” Indeed, It is to ourselves that we relate all things, it is the influence of things upon ourselves that leads us to applaud or condemn them; it is therefore the relation of things to ourselves that makes them of interest to us; and without knowledge of the nature, faculties, qualities, state, relations and destination of the human soul, we

Chapter Five Psychology, 1900– 1940 Human consciousness? Up until the turn of the century in 1900, there would simply have been no controversy raised— nor even an eyebrow— if one were to say that psychology was the study of human consciousness, pure and simple. That consensus would soon be lost, and the focus on consciousness would become controversial. Eventually con- sciousness would be entirely lost to psychological study as it was con- ducted by just about the entire discipline. In this chapter, we will take a bird’s- eye view of psychology in the pe- riod

[297] CHAPTER 8 Call It Psychology Next he’ll produce photographic evidence of his dreams. Waldo Lydecker in Laura “WOULDN’T YOU LIKE TO MEET YOU?” ASKS THE PSYCHO- analyst in That Uncertain Feeling (1941). The drama of profound self- revelation became prominent in forties Holly wood as never before. Filmmakers pushed subjective story telling to a new ex- treme. Going beyond indicating visual and auditory point of view, and beyond capturing transient states of mind in brief fl ashbacks and personalized montages, they sought to reveal characters’ hidden

98 c h a p t e r f o u r Psychology in the Age of Enlightenment In his lectures of the 1770s, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) advocated inte- grating empirical psychology into university curricula as an autonomous discipline. He argued that psychology had remained subordinated to meta- physics because metaphysics had been wrongly construed and because psy- chology had until then been insufficiently systematic and its field of study too limited. But now the moment had come (as it had for anthropology) for it to acquire a place of its own alongside other university

chapter six Evolutionary Psychology and Its Analogies Thus far we have explored the impact of Darwinian analogies in poli-tics, paleontology and geology, and, albeit briefly, the social sciences. Darwinism’s reach in the social sciences went much deeper than the dis- cussion of the preceding chapters might suggest, in large measure because of the emergence in late nineteenth-century Argentina of the influential schools of evolutionary psychology to which we now turn. These schools did not appear ex nihilo with the advent of Darwinism. Instead, Darwin- ian

c h a p t e r t w o Philosophical Psychology with Political Intent michael a . neblo Aristotle’s approach to anger pointed the way to a modern, folk-centered, cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. Indeed, Aristotle could be called the first cognitive theorist of the emotions, and his analysis makes im- plicit use of the ideas of relationship, appraisal, and action tendency. richard lazarus , Emotion and Adaptation Let us therefore take it that the soul has its principal seat in the small gland located in the middle of the brain. From there