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RECOGNITION IfECOCl/1IIIOl/1 We have seen that the "fidelity imperative" commands the comedy to ab- sorb its own audience, as observers and portraitists, into the act of comic creation. But the very existence of this imperative results, in turn, from another function of the public: not that of creator, but of spectator. For it is first and foremost the desire of the audience members to see their world represented as they pictute it that creates the conditions for their mythic collaboration with Moliere. I have until now considered only implicitly the

In his landmark study of the concept of resemblance in twelfth- century thought, Robert Javelet observes that “God can be known only in a mirror and as an enigma, at least here on earth. The mirror is creation, the enigma, holy Scripture.”1 Each of the terms he proposes here, mirror and enigma, is useful for thinking about bestiaries. Their creatures are both endowed with natures, as parts of creation, and read allegorically in the light of scripture, and so they enable both the mirroring recognition afforded by an exemplar or model and the more

Chapter fourteen Liberty as Recognition Nandini Chatterjee Adopted in 1950, article 17 of the Constitution of India legally abol-ished untouchability, the ancient Hindu system of social discrimi- nation, forbidding its practice in any form and making the enforcement of any discrimination arising out of this disability a criminal offense. At the same time, the constitution guaranteed freedom of religious belief and practice under article 25, the autonomy of religious institutions un- der article 26, and the right of religious and linguistic minorities to es

168 S E V E N The Politics of Recognition In this chapter, I address the puzzle of Estrada’s support among the poor in Metro Manila. I argue that the poor support Estrada because they perceive him to be sincere, someone who truly cares about them in a fi eld of politi- cians who merely use them for electoral gain. They see him as sincere not because of his patronage, his celebrity, his political machinery, or any specifi c populist tactic, but because of the quality of his political performance. What the poor recognize, specifi cally, is a pattern of

Introduction Puerto Ricans, Citizenship, and Recognition In 1994, Juan Mari Bras, a lawyer and Nationalist leader in Puerto Rico, renounced his United States citizenship at the U.S. Embassy in Venezu- ela. The U.S. State Department confirmed his denaturalization within a year, but a more complicated issue remained: was Mari Bras, then, a Puerto Rican citizen instead? Attaining legal recognition of Puerto Rican citizenship—with full political rights, including the ability to vote in Puerto Rican elections—was Mari Bras’s goal, and it took him several years

F i v e The Controversy over “Fraudulent Recognitions” in the territories in which the métis question arose, it was soon linked to the practice of “fraudulent recognition.” Colonial administrators and jurists expressed alarm at what they saw as a serious threat to the colonial order, in which unscrupulous individuals flouted the law and granted citizenship to whomever they wished.1 in view of the geography of the métis problem, it is not surprising that indochina was the epicenter of the phenomenon—though Madagascar and sub-Saharan Africa were also

3 A n n u i t c œ p t i s Recognition, Authority, and Law Seeking the Favor oF recognition Annuit cœptis, the thirteen- letter phrase on the reverse of the Great Seal, is more ambiguously phrased than the earlier candidate for its position, William Barton’s suggested Deo favente, or “God willing.” The phrase that was ultimately chosen, Annuit cœptis “Favor [our] undertak- ings” or “[He] has favored [our] undertakings”— leaves direct identification of its subject, that which has favored or will favor these undertakings, un- named. The centrality of favor

3 The Material Poetics of Tragic Recognition Souvenirs never go out of fashion, as the countless miniature replicas of Athena Parthenos sold in tourist shops throughout Greece will attest even to- day. Replicas make it possible for the tourist to take home a small piece of the city she has visited. Unlike the modern- day tourist, neither the protagonists nor the Athenian Chorus of Euripides’ Ion will leave with concrete tokens of Delphi in hand, for it is Athens whose icons take center stage in the final recognition scene. Born in Athens into the royal

Rarely in the history of biology has a domain of empirical knowledge followed so closely and fruitfully upon an abstract theoretical idea. —E. O. Wilson (Kin Recognition: An Intro- ductory Synopsis, 1987) T he “abstract theoretical idea” to which Wilson refers is, of course, W. D. Hamilton’s (1964) theory of inclusive fitness, which specifies the con- ditions under which an allele would change frequency in a population due to its effects on its bearer’s reproduction and the reproduction of its bearer’s collateral relatives like siblings, nieces, and nephews

collective self- organization. For Deleuze . Hardt and Negri, Empire and Multitude.  Desire for Recognition? Butler, Hegel, and Spinoza  Chapter Four and those he inspires, “Spinoza’s is a philosophy of pure affi rmation.” Spinoza’s self may be driven by self- preservation, but the desire for pres- ervation is not, for these thinkers, poised for a battle to the death, but overfl owing with a feeling of vitality. Hegel, in contrast, is viewed as one for whom desire is, in essence, destructive and violent. Although Hegel envisions overcoming the annihilating