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E I G H T E E N Subjectivity Introductory Remarks We are now ready to begin our study of book 3. Book 3 is divided into three sections, subjectivity, objectivity, and the idea. We can express this division in terms of the history of philosophy as follows. The immediate or subjective Concept (i.e., the result of the unifi cation of being and essence) is distinct from external things (Descartes); it moves via its inner determi- nations (Spinoza) to a sublation of the external, as in Leibniz’s monads. But in Hegel’s hands, the monad reexternalizes; objectivity

1 O N E Simulating Subjectivity To decide cases justly, judges and juries must, among other things, determine the facts. From the evidence presented in court— eyewitnesses’ testimony about what they saw or heard, supplemented by documentary or forensic evidence, expert testimony, and sometimes photos, videos, or audio recordings— they try to build coherent accounts of what happened. But what if the disputed fact is a perceptual experience known only to the person who experienced it?1 What a liti- gant hears or sees (or heard or saw) may be critical, not as

60 T H R E E Life, Subjectivity, Assimilation What is it that nondoctrinal philosophical reflection must react to? What is involved when we are advised to reflect on human life by experimenting with concepts in philo­ sophical conversations? It is not about our physical health and, as we have seen, also not about progress. Socrates said that in such conversations, we pay attention to our “soul.” Because Christianity has given a special meaning to the con­ cept of soul, we would nowadays say that it is all about our subjectivity. How are we to understand

, and Mr. Kosice had no contact with any kind of art (his first poetic attempts were published in the journal Arturo in 1944, and his first artistic objects are from 1945). Let us also take this opportunity to make clear that our movement has nothing to do with the group that goes by the name of “Madí.”3 subjective instAbility 3 122 C h a p t e r t h r e e Arden Quin, Roth Rothfuss, and Kosice founded the Grupo Madí, together with the painter and sculptor Martin Blasko, in mid- 1946. In addition to painting and sculpture, its members practiced the arts of

part ii Terrorist Subjectivities chapter three The Terrorist as Lover Read My Terrorist Desire At the risk of seeming ridiculous, let me say that a true revolutionary is guided by great feelings of love. It is impossible to think of a true revolutionary lacking in this quality”—these are the often quoted words from Che Guevara. They need to be taken literally if we are to know what “the terrorist” is all about. I have argued in part I that terrorism discourse shapes and frequently ends up creating its own reality. But is there nothing to “terrorism” but the

mythological sarcophagi. In addition to thinking about the epistemological status of the shroud and its detail topography within an ancient visual culture, I investigate some of the ways in which this iconography was constituted as a profoundly gendered problem of subjectivity, and more specifically as a question of the gaze. At the same time, I wish to avoid any suggestion of treating these topics as exclusively visual problems at the expense of their ethical dimensions that were likewise embedded within a social matrix of desires, temporalities, and richer forms and

National Accounts of Time Use and Well-Being

377 12.1 Introduction Many economic models are based on the forward-looking behavior of economic agents. Although it is often said that “expectations” about fu- ture events are important in these models, it is the probability distributions of future events that influence the models. For example, an individual’s consumption and saving decisions are believed to depend upon concerns regarding future interest rates, the likelihood of dying, and the risk of sub- stantial future medical expenditures. According to our theories, decision makers have subjective

67 The Science of Subjectivity The simulations in the previous chapter rested their claims to provide reliable knowledge of subjective experience entirely on the word of the person having the experience: “That’s what I see!” The simulations in this chapter and the next are different. Their epistemological claims are based not merely on the litigants’ say- so, but on the authority of science. The video simulation in Smith (the idiopathic intra- cranial hypertension case) and the sound files in Janson (the tinnitus case), both discussed in this chapter, are

1 introduction Automobility and American Subjectivity You road I enter upon and look around, I believe you are not all that is here. I believe that much unseen is also here. —Walt Whitman1 Almost from the moment of the Interstate Highway System’s authoriza- tion in 1956, historians, sociologists, geographers, political scientists, ur- ban planners, journalists, cultural critics, and artists have ruminated on the far-reaching effects of cars and highways on transportation and work patterns, the environment, social customs, and popular culture. The re- sulting