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Life in the Nocturnal City, 1820-1930
Science, Trade, and Visual Culture in the Dutch Golden Age
Hume and the Rise of Capitalism

how this works using an exercise he helped conduct in Wisconsin’s Northern Highlands Lake District. International travel, trade, and commerce have transformed our world economically, culturally, and biologically. The oceans that once acted as barriers to separate far­flung floras and faunas no longer do this. New exotic plants and animals from faraway places continue to estab­ lish themselves in North America, often displacing native species. Their remarkable success may reflect their ability to leave coevolved predators, parasites, and competitors behind

of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the prohibi- tion of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffi c and the liquor traffi c, 194 / Appendix II and the prevention of the establishment of fortifi cations or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police pur- poses and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League. There are

and political behavior in order to show men how best to achieve their justifiable aim of economic well-being. If at times he seemed to be operating from the mercantilist premise of wealth for England above all, it was only because this, too, was in accordance with his idea of natural law. Each country existed in a state of nature with every other, but although there was no common civil law to control their actions, it was in the best interests of each country to uphold the economic contracts permitting trade and commerce to take place, just as it had been to the

had on London. It is hard to imagine a thesis quite as radically anti- Weberian as Child put forward in his 1681 Treatise, which tried to claim paradoxically that the “East India trade is the most National of all Foreign Trades.” He attempted to show that London had not succeeded by exporting its own Protestant values in relation to trade and commerce but instead that Protestant values had appeared and become coherent because of London’s linkage to Eastern Asia. Child’s reversal of causality is what remains so striking about his argu- ment. The fi rst Whigs

Buildings; Of Its Metals, Minerals, Trees, Plants, Animals, Birds and Fishes; Of the Chronology and Succes- sion of the EMPERORS, Ecclesiastical and Secular; Of the Original Descent, Religions, Customs, and Manufactures of the natives, and of their Trade and Commerce with the Dutch and the Chinese. Together with a Descrip- tion of the Kingdom of Siam. Written in High- Dutch by Engelbertus Kæmp- N OT E S 238 N o t e s t o c ha p t e r o n e fer, M. D. Physician to the Dutch embassy to the Emperor’s Court; and translated from his Original Manuscript, never before

occupation was considerable. Half of all women concen- trated in domestic service and another third involved in the textile or dress trades (Bellamy 1952, 39– 40). 4. Ibid., 39; Bellamy 1971, 31– 34; Brown 1972, 8– 9; Sheahan 1864, 284, 582, 586, 589– 91, 596; Starkey 1996, 73– 75; Trade and Commerce (1878), 11, 17, 113– 17; Beehive, March 9, 1872, 10– 11. 5. Lorenz 1984; McClelland and Reid 1985; Pollard and Robertson 1979; Reid 2010. 6. Hull and Easter Counties Herald, Feb. 15, Dec. 13, 1866, Jan. 17, 1867. In the begin- ning of 1867 a Trades’ Council was formed