power in 1933 did not bring “social
death” for the Jewish Frontkämpfer. The reign of terror the Nazis unleashed
on Jews, Communists, and other groups stood in marked contrast to their
failed attempts to marginalize Jewish ex-servicemen, whose record of ser-
vice in the front lines in World War I enabled them to claim and negotiate a
special status in the new Germany. Jewishveterans did not break with their
identity as Germans, and continued to demand recognition of their sacrifices
from the German public as well as the Nazi Party.
Moving from Hitler
Class and Wounded Badge,” “with [only] a Wound Badge.”49
The fourth list for “wartime participant, no decorations” tallied the names
of individuals who did not meet the minimum criteria, to whom no consid-
eration was given.50 In all, 186 GermanJewishveterans who had fled to the
Netherlands were sent to Theresienstadt between 1943 and 1944, while 330
others with “no decorations” were deported with the rest of the population
to Auschwitz and Sobibor, where the SS murdered them through forced la-
bor, starvation, and gassing.51
180 chApter 6
Thus the group
Cooke, Phillip, and Ben H. Shepherd, eds. Hitler’s Europe Ablaze: Occupation, Resis-
tance, and Rebellion during World War II. New York: Skyhorse, 2014.
Cooley, Charles Horton. Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York:
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1909.
Corbach, Dieter. “Ich kann nicht Schweigen!” Richard Stern, Köln, Marsilstein 20. Co-
logne: Scriba, 1988.
Crim, Brian E. Antisemitism in the German Military Community and the Jewish Response,
1914–1938. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.
——. “ ‘Was It All Just a Dream?’ German-JewishVeterans