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Jewish World War I Veterans under Hitler

: Battlegrounds : Cornell studies in military history | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2020013010 (print) | LCCN 2020013011 (ebook) | ISBN 9781501751011 (cloth) | ISBN 9781501751028 (epub) | ISBN 9781501751035 (pdf ) Subjects: LCSH: World War, 1914–1918—Veterans— Germany. | Jewish veterans—Germany—Social conditions—20th century. | Antisemitism—Germany— History—20th century. | World War, 1939–1945— Jews—Germany. | Jews, German—History—20th century. | Masculinity—Religious aspects—Judaism. Classification: LCC D639.V48 G34 2020

power in 1933 did not bring “social death” for the Jewish Frontkämpfer. The reign of terror the Nazis unleashed on Jews, Communists, and other groups stood in marked contrast to their failed attempts to marginalize Jewish ex-servicemen, whose record of ser- vice in the front lines in World War I enabled them to claim and negotiate a special status in the new Germany. Jewish veterans did not break with their identity as Germans, and continued to demand recognition of their sacrifices from the German public as well as the Nazi Party. Moving from Hitler

Class and Wounded Badge,” “with [only] a Wound Badge.”49 The fourth list for “wartime participant, no decorations” tallied the names of individuals who did not meet the minimum criteria, to whom no consid- eration was given.50 In all, 186 German Jewish veterans who had fled to the Netherlands were sent to Theresienstadt between 1943 and 1944, while 330 others with “no decorations” were deported with the rest of the population to Auschwitz and Sobibor, where the SS murdered them through forced la- bor, starvation, and gassing.51 180 chApter 6 Thus the group

, 2005. Cooke, Phillip, and Ben H. Shepherd, eds. Hitler’s Europe Ablaze: Occupation, Resis- tance, and Rebellion during World War II. New York: Skyhorse, 2014. Cooley, Charles Horton. Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1909. Corbach, Dieter. “Ich kann nicht Schweigen!” Richard Stern, Köln, Marsilstein 20. Co- logne: Scriba, 1988. Crim, Brian E. Antisemitism in the German Military Community and the Jewish Response, 1914–1938. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014. ——. “ ‘Was It All Just a Dream?’ German-Jewish Veterans