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15 Achieving Food Security Starvation is the characteristic of some people not having enough food to eat. It is not the characteristic of there not being enough food to eat. - Amartya Sen, Poverty and Famines [1] The challenge we face, as I have argued in this book, is not simply a matter of meeting the global market demand for food. That is relatively easy. Indeed, it is a goal we have already achieved. Cutbacks in grain production in the developed countries have occurred largely because of a lack of market demand. Yet, as we know, there are over 750

63 4 The Po liti cal Economy of Food Security I was strongly inclined to do away forever with distributions of grain, because through dependence on them agriculture was neglected. The Emperor Augustus of Rome1 Hunger has always been po liti cal. The practice of agriculture evolved from hunting and gathering in several locations around the world, ten to fi fteen thousand years ago, and it is likely that there were disputes between hunter- gatherer communities over access to different parts of the landscape.2 Agriculture stimulated the creation of settled

8 Food Aid, Development, and Food Security Edward Clay A combination of reasons makes it particularly worthwhile at the beginning of the 1990s to look at the relationship between food aid, agricultural development, and food security in developing countries. In the years following the world food crisis of 1972-74, at least par¬ tial international agreement was obtained on measures to increase international food security. In the latter part of that decade, several institutional changes were made, particularly at the international level and in bilateral

61 3 THE THREATS TO FOOD SECURITY Hannas and Anna Matola farm a hectare of land in one of the poorest districts of southern Malawi. Weeds, including the notorious parasitic weed Striga, are their most persistent and pervasive problem. It takes Anna and her children forty to fifty days of weeding each crop to keep the weeds under control. They have tried cas- sava as an insurance crop, but it is attacked by a new, supervirulent strain of Afri- can cassava mosaic virus. The banana seedlings they bought from neighbors were infected with weevils, nematodes

61 3 THE THREATS TO FOOD SECURITY Hannas and Anna Matola farm a hectare of land in one of the poorest districts of southern Malawi. Weeds, including the notorious parasitic weed Striga, are their most persistent and pervasive problem. It takes Anna and her children forty to fifty days of weeding each crop to keep the weeds under control. They have tried cas- sava as an insurance crop, but it is attacked by a new, supervirulent strain of Afri- can cassava mosaic virus. The banana seedlings they bought from neighbors were infected with weevils, nematodes

Chapter 4 Food Security, Consumption, and Demand Policies Introduction People’s food choices are determined by many factors, of which meeting energy and nutrient needs is only one, and often not perceived to be the most important one. Food consumption is an important part of social behavior (influenced by culture, geography, and other social conditions) and differs across individuals and house- holds (varying with incomes, preferences, cultural traditions, and local prices). In order to improve food consumption through government policy, it is

CHAPTER 4 X><X><><X The AIDS Epidemic, Nutrition, Food Security, and Livelihoods: Review of Evidence in Africa Suneetha Kadiyala and Antony Chapoto 1. Introduction With a six-fold increase in funding to fight HIV and AIDS this decade, significant advances have been made in combating the intractable AIDS epidemic. Close to three million people received antiretroviral treatment (ART) by the end of 2007- a staggering 10-fold increase in the last six years (UNAIDS 2oo8a). The annual number of deaths declined from 2.2 million in 2005 to 2.0 million in 2007

Chapter Fourteen Surviving Shocks in Ethiopia: The Role of Social Protection for Food Security (4-2) by Annick Hiensch Executive Summary Ethiopia has suffered from frequent disasters such as droughts, famines, epidemics, floods, landslides, earthquakes, civil wars, and mass displacement, as well as rapid declines in major export commodity prices. The government and the international aid community can help reduce the negative effects of these shocks on food security for vulnerable populations with a social protection strategy, which can include

Chapter One HIV/AIDS, Gender, and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa (3-1) by Anandita Philipose Executive Summary HIV I AIDS continues to spread across the world at a rapid rate, with close to 5 million new HIV infec- tions in 2006 alone. Sub-Saharan Africa, the worst- affected region, is home to two-thirds of all adults and children with H!V globally. Southern Africa is the epicenter of the epidemic-one-third of all people with H!V globally live there and 34 percent of all deaths due to AIDS in 2006 occurred there [UNA!DS 2006). This case study

Chapter Two Food Security, Nutrition, and Health in Costa Rica's Indigenous Populations (3-2) by Anna Herforth Executive Summary Indigenous groups all over the world have been economically, politically, and socially marginalized and have worse health and nutrition outcomes and more food insecurity than mainstream populations. Costa Rica has been held up as an exemplar country for good development. Per capita gross national income and literacy in Costa Rica is the highest out of all Latin American countriesj infant and under-five mortality rates, low