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Chinatown's Alternative Food Network in the Global Marketplace
Climate Change and the Foods We Love and Need

Linking Food Availability, Food Security, and Nutrition 62 Figure 3.7. Potential Points of Contamination with Food Safety Hazards along the Farm-to-Table Food Supply Chain 67 Figure 3.8. Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables (kg/person/year) 73 Figure 4.1. Progress toward Meeting the World Food Summit Goal 92 Figure 4.2. Economic Growth and Hunger 110 Figure 5.1. The Chronic Poor, Transient Poor, and Nonpoor: A Categorization 122 Figure 5.2. Millions of Ultra Poor (<$0.50/day) by Region in 1990 (a) and 2004 (b) 128 xii Figures Figure 5.3. $1/Day Poverty

Chapter Nine Globalization and the Nutrition Transition: A Case Study (10-1) by Corinna Hawkes Executive Summary In the current "nutrition transition," the consump- tion of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The nutrition transition, impli- cated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of the food supply chain, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost, and desirability

Sullivan, Mike, 104 supermarket chains, 52, 74, 149–66; brands, 150, 152; Fair Food agreements, 75, 91, 150, 153, 164–66, 169, 181, 183–84, 187, 192 , 203–8, 210, 212, 223, 245; largest, 235. See also grocery stores supply chain. See food (supply) chain supporters. See allies; faith-based allies; student allies suspension from FFP, 132, 145, 196, 210, 220, 244 sustainable agriculture, 159 sweatshop protests, 53, 57, 62, 110, 235 system-level perspective, 198–99, 208, 225–26. See also food (supply) chain Taco Bell, 3, 235; boycott, xi, 54, 55

. Supermarkets and the Agri-food Supply Chains. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Busch, Lawrence, and Carmen Bain. 2004. New! Improved? Th e Transformation of the Global Agrifood System. Rural Sociology 69 (3): 321–46. Buttel, Fred. 1992. Environmentalization: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology 57 (1): 1–27. Carletto, Calogero, Alain de Janvry, and Elisabeth Sadoulet. 1999. Sustainability in the Dif- fusion of Innovations: Smallholder Non-traditional Agro-exports in Guatemala. Eco- nomic Development and Cultural Change 47

. The consistency of message, the depth of understanding of the food supply chain and the workers’ place within it, knowledge of the specifics of the Coalition’s demands, and an ability to explain the intricacies of the workers’ rights and the code of conduct that supports these would be rare in the most high-profile corporation or gov- ernment organization. From the earliest days, many voices joined those of Greg Asbed, Laura Ger- mino, Lucas Benitez, and the other founders in talking about the Coalition’s objectives of fair pay, safe working conditions, and a

. “Cities and the Geographies of ‘Actually Existing Neoliberalism.’ ” Antipode 34, no. 3 (2002): 349–79. Bronson, Kelly, and Irena Knezevic. “Big Data in Food and Agriculture.” Big Data and Society, January–June 2016, 1–5. Brown, J. Christopher, and Mark Purcell. “There’s Nothing Inherent about Scale: Politi- cal Ecology, the Local Trap, and the Politics of Development in the Brazilian Ama- zon.” Geoforum 36, no. 5 (2005): 607–24. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.09.001. Burch, David, and Geoffrey Lawrence. “Financialization in Agri-food Supply Chains: Private Equity and

chapter 9, and globalization and international trade in chapter 10. Ethical considerations, which affect all parts of the food systems, conclude the book (chapter 11). Relevant policy issues and options are discussed in each chapter. Toward a Global Food Systems Approach Historically, commentators have considered the food system as a set of activities that produce food products and meet consumer demands. Phrases such as “from farm to fork” or “farm to table” are common. In this linear, one-dimensional model (“the input-output model”), the food supply chain is

in the new era of urbanization a middle class is emerging, one that is creating a “Quiet Revolution in African food supply chains.” This development is being led mainly by African entrepreneurs in tens of thousands of small enterprises, scores HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION 57 and, perhaps soon, hundreds of medium- and large-scale firms. 58 African food markets have expanded by six- to eight-fold over the past four decades, most of that growth occurring in the past two decades. One projection is that the food market will grow another six-fold in the next