Food Availability, Food Security, and Nutrition 62
Figure 3.7. Potential Points of Contamination with Food
Safety Hazards along the Farm-to-Table FoodSupplyChain 67
Figure 3.8. Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables (kg/person/year) 73
Figure 4.1. Progress toward Meeting the World Food Summit Goal 92
Figure 4.2. Economic Growth and Hunger 110
Figure 5.1. The Chronic Poor, Transient Poor, and
Nonpoor: A Categorization 122
Figure 5.2. Millions of Ultra Poor (<$0.50/day) by Region
in 1990 (a) and 2004 (b) 128
Figure 5.3. $1/Day Poverty
Globalization and the Nutrition Transition: A Case Study (10-1)
by Corinna Hawkes
In the current "nutrition transition," the consump-
tion of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods high in
fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the
developing world. The nutrition transition, impli-
cated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related
chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the
processes of globalization. Globalization affects the
nature of the foodsupplychain, thereby altering
the quantity, type, cost, and desirability
. Supermarkets and the Agri-foodSupplyChains.
Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Busch, Lawrence, and Carmen Bain. 2004. New! Improved? Th e Transformation of the
Global Agrifood System. Rural Sociology 69 (3): 321–46.
Buttel, Fred. 1992. Environmentalization: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural
Social Change. Rural Sociology 57 (1): 1–27.
Carletto, Calogero, Alain de Janvry, and Elisabeth Sadoulet. 1999. Sustainability in the Dif-
fusion of Innovations: Smallholder Non-traditional Agro-exports in Guatemala. Eco-
nomic Development and Cultural Change 47
. The consistency of
message, the depth of understanding of the foodsupplychain and the workers’
place within it, knowledge of the specifics of the Coalition’s demands, and an
ability to explain the intricacies of the workers’ rights and the code of conduct
that supports these would be rare in the most high-profile corporation or gov-
From the earliest days, many voices joined those of Greg Asbed, Laura Ger-
mino, Lucas Benitez, and the other founders in talking about the Coalition’s
objectives of fair pay, safe working conditions, and a
. “Cities and the Geographies of ‘Actually Existing
Neoliberalism.’ ” Antipode 34, no. 3 (2002): 349–79.
Bronson, Kelly, and Irena Knezevic. “Big Data in Food and Agriculture.” Big Data and
Society, January–June 2016, 1–5.
Brown, J. Christopher, and Mark Purcell. “There’s Nothing Inherent about Scale: Politi-
cal Ecology, the Local Trap, and the Politics of Development in the Brazilian Ama-
zon.” Geoforum 36, no. 5 (2005): 607–24. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.09.001.
Burch, David, and Geoffrey Lawrence. “Financialization in Agri-foodSupplyChains:
Private Equity and
chapter 9, and globalization and international trade in chapter 10.
Ethical considerations, which affect all parts of the food systems, conclude the book
(chapter 11). Relevant policy issues and options are discussed in each chapter.
Toward a Global Food Systems Approach
Historically, commentators have considered the food system as a set of activities
that produce food products and meet consumer demands. Phrases such as “from
farm to fork” or “farm to table” are common. In this linear, one-dimensional model
(“the input-output model”), the foodsupplychain is
in the new era of urbanization a middle class is emerging, one that is creating a
“Quiet Revolution in African foodsupplychains.” This development is being led
mainly by African entrepreneurs in tens of thousands of small enterprises, scores
HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION 57
and, perhaps soon, hundreds of medium- and large-scale firms. 58 African food
markets have expanded by six- to eight-fold over the past four decades, most of
that growth occurring in the past two decades. One projection is that the food
market will grow another six-fold in the next