Carbon nanotubes constitute a nanostructured carbon material that consists of rolled up layers of carbon atoms forming a honeycomb lattice. This chapter provides a concise introduction into the world of carbon nanotubes, explaining their unique structural characteristics, synthesis routes and key characterization techniques. It summarizes the profile of exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes.
Graphene has been attributed a wide range of superlative properties, such as the thinnest, lightest, strongest material known to man. This chapter concentrates on the synthesis and characterization of graphene-based materials, including single-layer and few-layer graphene as well as graphene oxide. It further demonstrates that the dispersion of nanocarbons remains a key challenge for their implementation into hybrids.
Cellulose, the most abundant organic polymer on Earth, is an important component of higher plant cells. This chapter demonstrates the chemical structure, physical properties and biosynthesis of cellulose. It further highlights mechanical characteristics of cellulose-based materials.
To promote efficient dispersion in non-aqueous media, the surface of cellulosic nanoparticles can be modified with hydrophobic compounds using covalent and non-covalent coupling techniques. The chapter demonstrates a wide variety of chemical modification technologies and characterization methods of functionalized nanoparticles.
The generation of sub-100-nanometer features by means of femtosecond laser pulses was studied. Different of these gold and gold-coated silicon structures were investigated as to their optical properties. Due to the plasmonic resonances observed, these structures possess great potential for near-field nanophotonic applications.
Femtosecond laser pulses are used for patterning organic monolayers by exploiting high nonlinearities in and the ultrathin nature of these materials. This chapter also discusses applications of such coatings as ultrathin resists and functional platforms for fabrication of protein micro- and nanoarrays.
In this chapter, examples of analyzing nanostructured materials with electron diffraction techniques are presented. Among the investigated materials are nano-sized superstructures in superconductors, as well as nanoparticles used in semiconductor growth and nanocrystalline structures.
This chapter takes a look at the fundamental background of Ostwald ripening and its implications for the preparation of nanodispersions. The author discusses the underlying kinetics and the reduction of Ostwald ripening in nanosuspensions and nanoemulsions.
Two main areas of industrial applications of nanosuspensions are focused on in this chapter. The first is the use of nanosuspensions to achieve size reduction of highly insoluble drugs to enhance their bioavailabilty. The second is the application of titanium dioxide nanosuspensions in sunscreens.
Polymer Colloids have seen a revival in academic research, being nanosized objects, composed of different molecules, each type of molecule contributing different functions to the object. In this chapter, the authors present a few salient features of the structure of polymer colloids, followed by data on the synthesis of these colloids and finally give several key-points on colloidal stability.
The ability to efficiently store and retrieve electric energy is at the heart of the mobile revolution, which has swept through society since the late 1980’s. This chapter presents the fundamental concepts associated with electrochemical energy storage systems in such a way that it will be accessible to a broad audience working in the area of functional materials. The current state-of-the art materials used in these electrochemical energy storage systems will also be presented.
The organic and biological worlds have contributed a variety of materials to the “nanoparticle universe”. Some of these nanostructures occur in natural/physiological environments (for example peptide “nanofibers”), and many are synthetic entities, including polymeric NPs or NPs built from organic compounds. This chapter focuses on biological and organic molecule assemblies which can be categorized as “synthetic nanoparticles”.
This chapter focuses on nanoparticles containing two or more atomic species belonging to different “families” – such as metal/semiconductor NPs or inorganic/organic NPs. In some cases the components retain their individual properties. Yet in other scenarios, the properties of the hybrid NP are determined to a significant degree by the synergy between the distinct atomic or molecular components. Numerous hybrid NPs have been reported in recent years, this chapter highlights representative systems and NPs exhibiting unique structures and functions.
The demand for lighter and stronger polymer composite material in various applications is increasing every day. Among all the possibilities to research and exploit the exceptional properties of CNTs in polymer composites we focused on the reinforcement of epoxy resin with different types of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs).
This chapter aims at reviewing the latest results of studies focused in corrosion issues in the joining of lightweight materials. It describes the most common corrosion phenomena observed in joined materials, and emphasizes corrosion issues in combined assemblies. The state-of-the-art in corrosion protection and future trends are reviewed.
This review is focused on the preparation and characterization of cerium molybdate, cerium titanium oxide, ceria with/without conductive polymer coatings, magnetic and photocatalytic hollow nanocomposites. Their performance in a corrosive environment is tested, the antibacterial action on E.coli and production of nanocomposites able to absorb water without extensive swelling and trap corrosive agents are reported.
Modeling mechanical properties of nanocomposites can be approached in different ways of varying complexity. The first part of this chapter considers the molecular scale with the main emphasis on the molecular dynamics method, the second part of the chapter deals with the nano/micro-scale considering various types of microstructural information and finally the chapter considers different examples of multiscale approaches.
Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive and quantitative method to detect trace chemicals with potential applications in environmental monitoring, chemical reaction monitoring and medical diagnosis. To provide a stronger effect, biological functionalization, switching of the process and easy delivery, the necessary gold nanoparticles can be encapsulated in suitable (e.g. biocompatible) membranes.