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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

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Volume 67, Issue 7


The influence of lathe check depth and orientation on the bond quality of phenol-formaldehyde – bonded birch plywood

Anti Rohumaa
  • Corresponding author
  • Wood Material Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Aalto, Finland
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/ Christopher G. Hunt / Mark Hughes
  • Wood Material Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Aalto, Finland
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/ Charles R. Frihart / Janne Logren
  • Wood Material Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Aalto, Finland
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Published Online: 2013-03-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2012-0161


During the rotary peeling of veneer for plywood or the laminated veneer lumber manufacture, checks are formed in the veneer that are as deep as 70–80% of the veneer thickness. The results of this study show that, during adhesive bond testing, deep lathe checks in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) veneer significantly reduce the shear strength and the percent wood failure of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) – bonded plywood. The results also show that specimens tested with the checks pulled open or closed can fail by different mechanisms. Dried rotary peeled birch veneers were sanded to create uniform surfaces with lathe check depths varying from 30% to 90% of veneer thickness. Then, 7-ply plywood was manufactured with a commercial PF resin. After the preparation of the test specimens, the check depth of each specimen was measured microscopically. Subsequently, bond quality was measured according to EN 314. The results show that veneer checking alone can bring EN 314 specimens to the brink of failure even with an excellent adhesive. These findings stress the importance of measuring the depth of lathe checks and considering the orientations of checks during the testing to get a better understanding of bond quality in veneer-based products.

Keywords: bond quality; lathe checks; percent wood failure; plywood; share strength


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About the article

Corresponding author: Anti Rohumaa, Wood Material Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 16400, 00076 Aalto, Finland, e-mail:

Received: 2012-10-02

Accepted: 2013-02-05

Published Online: 2013-03-13

Published in Print: 2013-10-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 67, Issue 7, Pages 779–786, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2012-0161.

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