Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, MD, FRCOG, Joachim W.

Ed. by Bancalari, Eduardo / Chappelle, Joseph / Chervenak, Frank A. / D'Addario , Vincenzo / Genc, Mehmet R. / Greenough, Anne / Grunebaum, Amos / Konje, Justin C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Romero, Roberto / Zalud, MD PhD, Ivica

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.361
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.578

CiteScore 2018: 1.29

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.522
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.602

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 34, Issue 6


The assessment of fetal behavior of growth restricted fetuses by 4D sonography

Wiku Andonotopo
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Sveti Duh Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia and Department of Health, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Asim Kurjak
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Zagreb, Sveti Duh Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2006-12-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2006.092


Aim: To find out whether the quantity of fetal facial expression and quality of body movements can be used as an additional diagnostic criterion for prenatal brain impairment in fetuses with growth restriction.

Subject and methods: A prospective study was conducted in 50 uncomplicated healthy women as control group with reliably dated pregnancies and 50 pregnant women with a growth restriced fetus as study group in the third trimester of pregnancy. 4D ultrasound observation is specially designed to assess whether functional brain impairment and fetal growth restriction had prenatally occurred by the utilization of several behavioral patterns.

Results: The median value of all movement patterns in the normal fetuses differed from fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Statistical evaluation revealed significant differences in the distribution of the movements between these groups (P<0.05). We noted a tendency that IUGR fetuses have less behavioral activity than normal fetuses in all observed movement patterns. Correlation reached statistical significance between normal and IUGR fetuses in the third trimester in hand to head, hand to face and head retroflexion. Statistically significant differences could be shown in the distribution of the median values of observation over the five qualitative categories of head and hand movements (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Recent data on IUGR fetuses obtained by 4D sonography are stimulating and might result in a more effective strategy to assess development before birth. The results of this study may encourage future use of 4D ultrasound for quantitative and qualitative assessment of fetal behavior as possible indicators of the neurological condition in IUGR fetuses.

Keywords: Fetal behavior; four-dimensional ultrasound; growth restriction

About the article

Corresponding author: Wiku Andonotopo, MD, PhD Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical School, University of Zagreb Sveti Duh Hospital Sveti Duh 64, Zagreb, Croatia Tel.:+385 91 8895288 Fax:+385 1 3745534

Received: January 25, 2006

Revised: July 19, 2006

Accepted: September 7, 2006

Published Online: 2006-12-01

Published in Print: 2006-12-01

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 471–478, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2006.092.

Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Lisandra Stein Bernardes, Juliana Fontan Ottolia, Marina Cecchini, Antônio Gomes de Amorim Filho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, and Daniel Ciampi de Andrade
PAIN Reports, 2018, Page 1
N. Reissland, S. Froggatt, E. Reames, and J. Girkin
Journal of Affective Disorders, 2018
Jonathan Lai, Richard Woodward, Yuriy Alexandrov, Qurratul ain Munnee, Christoph C. Lees, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Niamh C. Nowlan, and Marco Altini
PLOS ONE, 2018, Volume 13, Number 5, Page e0195728
Nobuhiro Mori, Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa AboEllail, Chiaki Tenkumo, Kenji Kanenishi, Naoki Nishimoto, and Toshiyuki Hata
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2017, Page 1
Alexander E. P. Heazell, Jane Warland, Tomasina Stacey, Christin Coomarasamy, Jayne Budd, Edwin A. Mitchell, and Louise M. O’Brien
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2017, Volume 17, Number 1
Asim Kurjak, Panos Antsaklis, Milan Stanojevic, Radu Vladareanu, Simona Vladareanu, Raul Moreira Neto, Lara Spalldi Barisic, Selma Porovic, and Taib Delic
Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2017, Volume 45, Number 6
Toshiyuki Hata
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 2016, Volume 42, Number 10, Page 1211
T.-H. Kim, J. J. Lee, S.-H. Chung, H.-H. Lee, K. H. Lee, K. Y. Choi, and S. H. Lee
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2010, Volume 30, Number 5, Page 439
O. O'sullivan, G. Stephen, E. Martindale, and A. E. P. Heazell
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2009, Volume 29, Number 8, Page 705
A. E. P Heazell and J. F. Frøen
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2008, Volume 28, Number 2, Page 147
Asim Kurjak, Ana Tikvica, Milan Stanojevic, Berivoj Miskovic, Baldreldeen Ahmed, Guillermo Azumendi, and Gian Carlo Di Renzo
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2008, Volume 21, Number 10, Page 675
Berivoj Miskovic, Oliver Vasilj, Milan Stanojevic, Davor Ivanković, Mario Kerner, and Ana Tikvica
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2010, Volume 23, Number 12, Page 1461
D. F. Öcal, T. Nas, and İ. Güler
Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -), 2015, Volume 184, Number 3, Page 607
Hélio Antonio Guimarães Filho, Edward Araujo Júnior, Carlos Fernando de Mello Júnior, Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, and Antonio Fernandes Moron
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, 2013, Volume 59, Number 5, Page 507
Maja Predojević, Amira Talić, Milan Stanojević, Asim Kurjak, and Aida Salihagić Kadić
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2014, Volume 27, Number 3, Page 247
Toshiyuki Hata, Uiko Hanaoka, Masato Mashima, Mari Ishimura, Genzo Marumo, and Kenji Kanenishi
Journal of Medical Ultrasonics, 2013, Volume 40, Number 4, Page 437
Apostolos P. Athanasiadis, Themistoklis Mikos, George P. Tambakoudis, Theodoros D. Theodoridis, Maria Papastergiou, Efstratios Assimakopoulos, and Basil C. Tarlatzis
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2013, Volume 26, Number 4, Page 363
A. Kurjak, M. Stanojević, M. Predojević, I. Laušin, and A. Salihagić-Kadić
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2012, Volume 17, Number 6, Page 319
Amira Talic, Asim Kurjak, Milan Stanojevic, Ulrich Honemeyer, Ahmed Badreldeen, and Gian Carlo DiRenzo
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2012, Volume 25, Number 8, Page 1267
Amira Talic, Asim Kurjak, Badreldeen Ahmed, Milan Stanojevic, Maja Predojevic, Aida Salihagic Kadic, and Gian Carlo Di Renzo
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2011, Volume 24, Number 7, Page 948
Salwa Abo-Yaqoub, Asim Kurjak, Abdel-Baset Mohammed, Afaf Shadad, and Mohammed Abdel-Maaboud
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2012, Volume 25, Number 3, Page 231
Philippe Rochat
Consciousness and Cognition, 2011, Volume 20, Number 1, Page 109
Asim Kurjak, Maja Predojević, Milan Stanojević, Amira Talić, Ulrich Honemeyer, and Aida Salihagić Kadić
Imaging in Medicine, 2011, Volume 3, Number 5, Page 557
Toshiyuki Hata, Shu-Yan Dai, and Genzo Marumo
Infant and Child Development, 2010, Volume 19, Number 1, Page 99

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in