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Neuroforum

Organ der Neurowissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft

Editor-in-Chief: Wahle, Petra


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Volume 25, Issue 2

Issues

Psychological and neuroscientific advances to understand Internet Use Disorder

Prof. Dr. Benjamin Becker
  • neuSCAN Laboratory, The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Chengdu China
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/ Prof. Dr. Christian Montag
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  • Department of Molecular Psychology Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University Helmholtzstr. 8/1, D-89081 Ulm phone: +49-731-50 26550 fax: +49-731-50 32759 Twitter: @ChrisMontag77 Ulm Germany
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Published Online: 2019-06-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/nf-2018-0026

Zusammenfassung

Internet-Nutzungsstörung (INS; in der jüngeren Vergangenheit zumeist als „Internet-Sucht“ benannt) stellt ein viel diskutiertes Thema weltweit dar. Besonders mit der Aufnahme der Diagnose Gaming Disorder im ICD-11 der Weltgesundheitsbehörde ist das nächste Level einer oftmals emotional geführten Debatte über die Natur der Verhaltenssüchte erreicht worden. Um den Leser aktuelle Einsichten in den aktuellen Stand der Dinge bezüglich dieses Themenbereiches zu vermitteln, wird in der vorliegenden Übersichtarbeit zunächst zusammengefasst, was über die INS bekannt ist und auch wie sich das Störungsbild entwickelt. Zusätzlich wird versucht, das relativ neue Phänomen der Smartphone-Nutzungsstörung (für viele eher bekannt als „Smartphone-Sucht“) in dem großen Themenkomplex der INS zu verorten.

Über diese theoretischen und diagnostischen Aspekte hinausgehend, gibt der vorliegende Artikel eine Übersicht über neurowissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse, die dabei helfen, die INS besser zu charakterisieren. Viele unterschiedliche Methoden der Neurowissenschaften wurden bereits eingesetzt, um die biologischen Grundlagen der INS zu entschlüsseln. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) stand dabei in der Vergangenheit besonders im Fokus, so dass Befunde aus der MRT-Forschung auch im Fokus dieses Übersichtsartikel stehen werden. Der Artikel endet mit Limitationen der aktuellen empirischen Forschung. Zusätzlich wird ein Ausblick auf die nächsten Schritte in dem lebhaften Forschungsfeld der INS gegeben.

Abstract

Internet Use Disorder (IUD; previously referred to as “Internet addiction”) has been considered an emerging public health issue. However, the topic is debated and remains highly controversial. Furthermore, the inclusion of a Gaming Disorder diagnosis in ICD-11 by the World Health Organization have rekindled debates on the nature of behavioral addictions. Against this background, the present review aims to provide readers with a summary on the current state of diagnostic approaches, risk factors and neurobiological models of IUD. Moreover, and in this context, the present work will include an outlook on smartphone use disorder (often referred to as “smartphone addiction”).

With respect to neurobiological underpinnings of IUD, different approaches including molecular genetics and neuroimaging have been employed. Here we will focus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in particular. In doing so, we will outline limitations of the available literature and provide an outlook for future research questions, which aim to integrate IUD with other behavioral and substance-based addictions.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Schlüsselwörter: Internet-Sucht; Internetnutzungsstörung; Smartphone-Sucht; Computerspiel-Sucht; Gaming Disorder; Magnetresonanztomographie

Keywords: Internet addiction; Internet Use Disorder; Smartphone addiction; gaming disorder; magnetic resonance imaging

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About the article

Prof. Dr. Benjamin Becker

Benjamin Becker is currently a thousand talent awarded Professor and head of the Neurotherapy – Social Cognition and Affective Neuroscience (neuSCAN.net) Laboratory at the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC) as well as Agreement Professor at the Fourth People’s Hospital in Chengdu (China). He received his Diploma in Psychology (2005) and PhD (2010) at the University of Trier and Heinrich Heine University of Duesseldorf in Germany, respectively. During his postdoctoral studies at the Departments of Psychiatry in Cologne and Bonn (Germany) his research employed advanced neuroimaging approaches to explore the emotional circuits of the human brain in healthy subjects and determine dysregulations of these circuits in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly substance use disorders. His current projects are funded by competitive national and international research grants and aim to develop innovative neuromodulatory strategies to regulate cognition-emotion circuitries via pharmacological and real-time neurofeedback approaches with the ultimate aim to establish better treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders. He is editorial board member of Psychopharmacology and BMC Neuroscience.

Prof. Dr. Christian Montag

Christian Montag received his diploma in psychology in September 2006 at Justus-Liebig-University in Giessen, Germany. In 2009 he achieved his PhD degree on his psychobiological works testing Gray’s revised reinforcement sensitivity theory and in 2011 he got the venia legendi for psychology at the University of Bonn, Germany. Since September 2014 he is Professor for Molecular Psychology at Ulm University, Germany (Heisenberg-Professor funded by the German Research Foundation). In addition, in February 2016 he has been appointed as agreement/visiting professor at the University of Electronic Science and Technology (UESTC) in Chengdu, China. Christian Montag is currently on the editorial board of the journals Personality Neuroscience, Addictive Behaviors, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health and Digital Psychology. Moreover, he is (co-) editor of the book series Studies in Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavioral Economics.

Christian Montag is interested in the molecular genetics of personality and emotions. He combines molecular genetics with brain imaging techniques such as structural/functional MRI to better understand individual differences in human nature. Adding to this he conducts research in the fields of Affective Neuroscience, Neuroeconomics and (Internet) addiction including new approaches from Psychoinformatics. Psychoinformatics describes the collaboration between computer science and psychology to predict psychological variables such as personality from human-machine interaction data (e. g. smartphone data). See for an exemplarily approach the work mentioned in the reference section by Montag et al. (2015c) and Montag et al. (2016).


Published Online: 2019-06-04

Published in Print: 2019-05-27


Citation Information: Neuroforum, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 99–107, ISSN (Online) 2363-7013, ISSN (Print) 0947-0875, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/nf-2018-0026.

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