Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Agriculture

Covered by: Elsevier - SCOPUS
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Healthier foods in perspective: What drives garlic purchase decisions and consumption in urban South-West Nigeria?

Dare Akerele
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, The Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Solomon Ajoseh
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, The Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Rahman Sanusi
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, The Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Funminiyi Oyawole
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, The Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2016-0013


Although consumer demand for food products with more health functions has stimulated expansion of a number of food industries in the past years, not much is known about drivers of market participation and consumption of such foods in Africa, and Nigeria in particular. Consequently, the study examined factors influencing purchase decision and consumption-expenditure on garlic in South-West Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and the Heckman selection model were employed for data analysis. Results show that more than 70.0% of the respondent households became aware of the health benefits of garlic through media, friends/family and health workers, with more than 75.0% consuming garlic in raw and processed forms. The results of the Heckman selection model indicated that sex (p<0.05) and awareness of household head about the health benefits of garlic (p<0.01) substantially enhanced decisions to consume garlic while household income (p<0.01), household size (p<0.01), educational status (p<0.1) and occupation of the household head (p<0.1) significantly influenced consumption-expenditure. The study recommends public education programmes on the health benefits of garlic, efforts to enhance access to formal education and improvement in household income as strategies that could stimulate and raise garlic consumption. Our findings hold enormous implications for the sustainability of the garlic market in terms of research and product development as it relates to the forms in which consumers prefer to consume garlic and strategies for spreading knowledge about its health benefits in order to achieve greater demand in the country.

Keywords: Healthier foods; garlic; human health; Heckman Selection Model


  • [1] Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (2009). Consumer trends - Functional foods. Market analysis report:. International Markets Bureau, 11061E:1-9 Google Scholar

  • [2] Angel-Urdinola, D. and Wodon, Q. (2010). Income Generation and Intra-Household Decision Making: A Gender Analysis for Nigeria. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ EXTDEVDIALOGUE/Resources/537297-1283442375786/ DDVE-Working_Paper_2010_12.pdf Google Scholar

  • [3] Annunziata, A. and Riccardo, V. (2010). Italian Consumer Attitudes toward Products for Wellbeing. The Functional Foods Market. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 13(2):19-50 Google Scholar

  • [4] Aromolaran, A. B. (2004): “Household income, women’s income share and food calorie intake in south western Nigeria”. Food Policy, 29: 507-530 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Aromolaran, A. B. (2010): Does increase in women’s income relative to men’s income increase food calorie intake in poor households? Evidence from Nigeria. Agricultural Economics 41(2010): 239-241 CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Blandon, J., Cranfield, J. and Henson, S. (2007): Functional Food and Natural Health Product Issues: The Canadian and International Context. http://www5.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/ doc/misb/fb-ba/nutra/pdf/u_of_guelph_functional_foods_ review_final_25jan2008_en.pdf Google Scholar

  • [7] Blundell, R. W. and Meghir, C. (1987). A Bivariate Alternatives to the Univariate Tobit Model, Journal of Econometrics 33(1987): 179-200 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Brower, V. (1998). Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market? Nature Biotechnology 16(8): 728-31 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9] Browning, M., Chiappori, P., and Lechene, V. (2006). Collective and Unitary Models: A clarification, Review of Economics of the Household 4(1): 5-14 Google Scholar

  • [10] Buehrlen, B., Canavari, M. and Breitschopf, B. (2005). Determinants of consumer preferences towards functional foods with seaweed ingredients. 97th EAAE Seminar, ‘The Economics and Policy of Diet and Health’ https://www. researchgate.net/publication/23748959 Google Scholar

  • [11] Büyükkaragöz, A., Bas, M., Sağlam, D. and Cengiz, Ş.E. (2014). Consumers’ awareness, acceptance and attitudes towards functional foods in Turkey, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(6): 628-635 Google Scholar

  • [12] Chanda, S., Kushwaha, S. and Tiwari, R.K. (2011) Garlic as food, spice and medicine: A perspective. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 4(6):1857-1860 Google Scholar

  • [13] Cragg, J.G. (1971). Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Applications to the Demand for Durable Goods, Econometrica, 39(5): 829-844 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] Diplock, A.T., Aggett, P.J., Ashwell, M., Bornet, F., Fern, E.B. and Roberfroid, M.B. (1999) Scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe: Consensus Document. British Journal of Nutrition 81, Suppl. 1, S1-S27 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Dogan, I.S., Yildiz, O., Eyduranand, E. and Kose, S. (2011). A study on determination of functional food consumption habits and awareness of consumers in Turkey. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17: 246-257 Google Scholar

  • [16] Gil, J. M., Garcia, A. and Sanchez, M. (2000) Market segmentation and willingness to pay for organic products in Spain. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 3: 207-226 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Gulati, O. P. and Ottaway, P. B. (2006) Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products, Toxicology 221(2006): 75-87 Google Scholar

  • [18] International Food Information Council Foundation (2011) Functional Foods www.foodinsight.org/foods forhealth.aspx Google Scholar

  • [19] Market Research. (2004). Global market overview of functional foods: Forecasts to 2010. Abstract. Retrieved on July 22, 2009 from http://www.marketresearch.com/product/display.asp? productid=1080567 Google Scholar

  • [20] Mullie, P., Guelinckx, I., Clarys, P., Degrave, E., Hulens, M. and Vansant, G. (2009). Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(11): 1290-1296 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] NPC (2010): 2006 Population and Housing Census. Priority Table volume IV. http://www.population.gov.ng/images/ Priority%20table%20Vol%204.pdf Google Scholar

  • [22] Niva, M. (2007). All foods affect health‘: Understandings of functional foods and healthy eating among health-oriented Finns. Appetite, 48: 384-393 Google Scholar

  • [23] Oyebade, O.A, Adeyemo, T. A. and Olajide, O.A . (2013). Youth Awareness and Consumption of Functional Foods in Nigeria: The Case of Plantain Flour. Tropentag 2013, Stuttgart, Germany September 17-19, 2013 http://www.tropentag.de/2013/ abstracts/full/336.pdf Google Scholar

  • [24] Özen, A. E., María del Mar Bibiloni, M. M., Pons, A. and Tur, J. A. (2014). Consumption of functional foods in Europe; a systematic review. Nutr. Hosp. 2014; 29(3): 470-478 Google Scholar

  • [25] Özen, A. E., Pons, A. and Tur, J. A. (2012). Worldwide consumption of functional foods: A systematic review. Nutrition Reviews 70(8): 472-481 CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Park, H. and Park, E. (2012) A Study on Intake of Health Functional Food and Its Related Factors in Adults Living in Busan and Gyeongnam Area. Clinical Nutrition Research 1(1): 37-48 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Pasquale, J. D., Adinolfi, A. and Capitanio, F. (2011). Analysis of Consumer Attitudes and Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods. International. Journal of Food System Dynamics 2011, 2(2): 181-193 Google Scholar

  • [28] Poulsen, J. B. (1999). Danish consumers’ attitudes towards functional foods. MAPP Working Paper No. 62, The Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Google Scholar

  • [29] Quisumbing, A. R. and McClafferty, B. (2006): Food security in practice: using gender research in development. IFPRI, Research Report, Pg 152 Google Scholar

  • [30] Rahman, M.S. (2007) Allicin and Other Functional Active Components in Garlic: Health Benefits and Bioavailability. International Journal of Food Properties 10(2): 248-268. Taylor and Francis Publishers. DOI:10.1080/10942910601113327 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] Salleh, H. S., Noor, N. A. M., Mat, N. H. N., Yuso, Y. and Mohamed, W. N (2015). Consumer-Behavioural Intention Towards The Consumption Of Functional Food In Malaysia: Their Profiles And Behaviours. International Business & Economics Research Journal 14(4): 725-734 Google Scholar

  • [32] Siro, I., Kapolna, E., Kapolna, B. and Lugasi, A. (2008). Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance — A review. Appetite 51(2008): 456-467 Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] Stojanovic, Z., Filipovic, J. and Musoga, B. (2013). Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods in Montenegro. Montenegrin Journal of Economics 9(3): 65-74 Google Scholar

  • [34] Sugandhi, P. G. and Maheswari, K. U. (2016) Perception and Effect of Socio Economic Factors of Indian Elderly on Yoghurt. Journal of Probiotics and Health, 4: 140. DOI:10.4172/2329- 8901.1000140 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Tobin, J. (1958). Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables, Econometrica, 26: 24-36 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36] Urala, N. and Lahteenmaki, L. (2007). Consumers’ changing attitudes towards functional foods. Food Quality and Preference, 18: 1-12 Google Scholar

  • [37] United Nations (2015). World Urbanization Prospects. The 2014 Revision. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/ WUP2014-Report.pdf Google Scholar

  • [38] USDA/ERS (1999) America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 750. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division Google Scholar

  • [39] Vella, M. N., Stratton, L. M., Sheeshka, J. and Duncan, A. M. (2014). Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults. Nutrition Journal 13:44 http://www.nutritionj.com/ content/13/1/44 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40] Verbeke, W. (2005). Consumer acceptance of functional foods: Socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants. Food Quality and Preference, 16: 45-57 Google Scholar

  • [41] Waladkhani A.R. and Clemens M.R. (2008) Dietary Phytochemicals in Prevention and Therapy of Cancer. In Watson R.R. and Preedy V.R. (ed) Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice. CAB International 2008 Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-06-27

Accepted: 2016-09-20

Published Online: 2016-10-17

Citation Information: Open Agriculture, Volume 1, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2391-9531, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2016-0013.

Export Citation

©2016 Dare Akerele et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in