Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Reviews on Environmental Health

Editor-in-Chief: Carpenter, David O. / Sly, Peter

Editorial Board: Brugge, Doug / Edwards, John W. / Field, R.William / Garbisu, Carlos / Hales, Simon / Horowitz, Michal / Lawrence, Roderick / Maibach, H.I. / Shaw, Susan / Tao, Shu / Tchounwou, Paul B.

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.616

CiteScore 2018: 1.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.508
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.664

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 30, Issue 4


Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder

Dominique Belpomme
  • Paris V University Hospital, France
  • European Cancer and Environment Research Institute (ECERI), Brussels, Belgium
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christine Campagnac
  • European Cancer and Environment Research Institute (ECERI), Brussels, Belgium
  • Hospital Director, seconded from Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Philippe Irigaray
  • Corresponding author
  • European Cancer and Environment Research Institute (ECERI), Brussels, Belgium
  • Association for Research and Treatments Against Cancer (ARTAC), F-75015 Paris, France
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-11-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2015-0027

An erratum for this article can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2015-8888


Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis. Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (<0.8) in all investigated cases. Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography. Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus. Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.

Keywords: biomarkers; cerebral hypoperfusion; electrohypersensitivity; limbic system; multiple chemical sensitivity


  • 1.

    Randolph TG. Human ecology and susceptibility to the chemical environment, ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. 1962:148pp.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Nethercott JR, Davidoff LL, Curbow B, Abbey H. Multiple chemical sensitivities syndrome: toward a working case definition. Arch Environ Health 1993;48(1):19–26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS): a consensus. Arch Environ Health 1999;54(3):147–9.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Genuis SJ. Sensitivity-related illness: the escalating pandemic of allergy, food intolerance and chemical sensitivity. Sci Total Environ 2010;408(24):6047–61.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Rea WJ, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Sujisawa I, Suyama H, et al. Electromagnetic field sensitivity. J Bioelectricity 1991;10(1–2):241–56.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Bergqvist U, Vogel E, Editors. Possible health implications of subjective symptoms and electromagnetic fields. A report prepared by a European group of experts for the European Commission, DGV. Arbete och Hälsa, 1997:19. Swedish National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. Available at: http://www2.niwl.se/forlag/en/.

  • 7.

    Santini R, Seigne M, Bonhomme-Faivre L, Bouffet S, Defrasme E, et al. Symptoms experienced by users of digital cellular phones: a study of a French engineering school. Electromagn Biol Med 2002;21(1):81–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Santini R, Santini P, Le Ruz P, Danze JM, Seigne M. Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base. Electromagn Biol Med 2003;22(1):41–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Hansson Mild K, Repacholi M, Van Deventer E, Ravazzani P, editors. 2006. In: Proceedings, International Workshop on EMF Hypersensitivity, Prague, Czech Republic, October 25–27, 2004. Milan: World Health Organization. Working group report, 15–26. Available at: http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/reports/EHS_Proceedings_June2006.pdf.

  • 10.

    Rubin GJ, Nieto-Hernandez R, Wessely S. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (formerly’electromagnetic hypersensitivity’): an updated systematic review of provocation studies. Bioelectromagnetics 2010;31(1):1–11.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Bornschein S, Förstl H, Zilker T. Idiopathic environmental intolerances (formerly multiple chemical sensitivity) psychiatric perspectives. J Intern Med 2001;250(4):309–21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Röösli M. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: a systematic review. Environ Res 2008;107(2):277–87.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Röösli M, Mohler E, Frei P. Sense and sensibility in the context of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. C R physique 2010;11:576–84.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Baliatsas C, Van Kamp I, Bolte J, Schipper M, Yzermans J, et al. Non-specific physical symptoms and electromagnetic field exposure in the general population: can we get more specific? A systematic review. Environ Int 2012;41:15–28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Genuis SJ, Lipp CT. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction? Sci Total Environ 2012;414:103–12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Köteles F, Szemerszky R, Gubányi M, Körmendi J, Szekrényesi C, et al. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) and electrosensibility (ES) – are they connected? Int J Hyg Environ Health 2013;216(3): 362–70.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Marc-Vergnes JP. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: the opinion of an observer neurologist. C R Physique 2010;11:564–75.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18.

    Carpenter DO. Excessive exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may cause the development of electrohypersensitivity. Altern Ther Health Med 2014;20(6):40–2.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Hagström M, Auranen J, Ekman R. Electromagnetic hypersensitive Finns: symptoms, perceived sources and treatments, a questionnaire study. Pathophysiology 2013;20(2):117–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    De Luca C, Raskovic D, Pacifico V, Thai JC, Korkina L. The search for reliable biomarkers of disease in multiple chemical sensitivity and other environmental intolerances. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8(7):2770–97.Google Scholar

  • 21.

    Baliatsas C, Van Kamp I, Lebret E, Rubin GJ. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF): a systematic review of identifying criteria. BMC Public Health 2012;12:643.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 22.

    Jorgensen LG. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound for cerebral perfusion. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1995;625:1–44.Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Texier JJ, Grunitsky E, Lepetit JM, Lajoix M, Cognard J, et al. Variation in the functional circulatory value measured by ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography during the administration of general intravenous anesthesia. Agressologie 1986;27(6):487–94.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Parini M, Lepetit JM, Dumas M, Tapie P, Lemoine J. Ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography. Application in 143 healthy subjects. Agressologie 1984;25(5):585–9.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Lajoix M, Bechonnet G, Lepetit JM. Ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography and cerebral perfusion pressure. Agressologie 1983;24(9):425–7.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Albert PJ, Proal AD, Marshall TG. Vitamin D: the alternative hypothesis. Autoimmun Rev 2009;8(8):639–44.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27.

    Tuohimaa P, Keisala T, Minasyan A, Cachat J, Kalueff A. Vitamin D, nervous system and aging. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34(Suppl 1):S278–86.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    Eyles DW, Feron F, Cui X, Kesby JP, Harms LH, et al. Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34(Suppl 1):S247–57.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29.

    Rocha SM, Pires J, Esteves M, Graça B, Bernardino L. Histamine: a new immunomodulatory player in the neuron-glia crosstalk. Front Cell Neurosci 2014;8:120.Google Scholar

  • 30.

    Greaves MW, Sabroe RA. Histamine: the quintessential mediator. J Dermatol 1996;23(11):735–40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 31.

    Abbott NJ. Inflammatory mediators and modulation of blood-brain barrier permeability. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2000;20(2):131–47.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 32.

    Mayhan WG. Role of nitric oxide in histamine-induced increases in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res 1996;743(1–2):70–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33.

    Tan KH, Harrington S, Purcell WM, Hurst RD. Peroxynitrite mediates nitric oxide-induced blood-brain barrier damage. Neurochem Res 2004;29(3):579–87.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34.

    Phares TW, Fabis MJ, Brimer CM, Kean RB, Hooper DC. A peroxynitrite-dependent pathway is responsible for blood-brain barrier permeability changes during a central nervous system inflammatory response: TNF-alpha is neither necessary nor sufficient. J Immunol 2007;178(11):7334–43.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 35.

    Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2007;87(1):315–424.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36.

    Yang S, Chen Y, Deng X, Jiang W, Li B, et al. Hemoglobin-induced nitric oxide synthase overexpression and nitric oxide production contribute to blood-brain barrier disruption in the rat. J Mol Neurosci 2013;51(2):352–63.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 37.

    Kanner AA, Marchi N, Fazio V, Mayberg MR, Koltz MT, et al. Serum S100beta: a noninvasive marker of blood-brain barrier function and brain lesions. Cancer 2003;97(11):2806–13.Google Scholar

  • 38.

    Kapural M, Krizanac-Bengez Lj, Barnett G, Perl J, Masaryk T, et al. Serum S-100beta as a possible marker of blood-brain barrier disruption. Brain Res 2002;940(1–2):102–4.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 39.

    Marchi N, Cavaglia M, Fazio V, Bhudia S, Hallene K, et al. Peripheral markers of blood-brain barrier damage. Clin Chim Acta 2004;342(1–2):1–12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 40.

    Koh SX, Lee JK. S100B as a marker for brain damage and blood-brain barrier disruption following exercise. Sports Med 2014;44(3):369–85.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41.

    Gunaydin H, Houk KN. Mechanisms of peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of tyrosine. Chem Res Toxicol 2009;22(5):894–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 42.

    de Pomerai D, Daniells C, David H, Allan J, Duce I, et al. Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves. Nature 2000;405(6785):417–8.Google Scholar

  • 43.

    French PW, Penny R, Laurence JA, McKenzie DR. Mobile phones, heat shock proteins and cancer. Differentiation 2001;67(4–5):93–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 44.

    Blank M, Goodman R. Electromagnetic fields stress living cells. Pathophysiology 2009;16(2–3):71–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 45.

    Yang XS, He GL, Hao YT, Xiao Y, Chen CH, et al. Exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields elicits an HSP-related stress response in rat hippocampus. Brain Res Bull 2012;88(4):371–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 46.

    Kesari KK, Meena R, Nirala J, Kumar J, Verma HN. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain. Cell Biochem Biophys 2014;68(2):347–58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 47.

    Berberian PA, Myers W, Tytell M, Challa V, Bond MG. munohistochemical localization of heat shock protein-70 in normal-appearing and atherosclerotic specimens of human arteries. Am J Pathol 1990;136(1):71–80.Google Scholar

  • 48.

    Georgopoulos C, Welch WJ. Role of the major heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1993;9:601–34.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 49.

    Hartl FU. Molecular chaperones in cellular protein folding. Nature 1996;381(6583):571–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 50.

    Sabirzhanov B, Stoica BA, Hanscom M, Piao CS, Faden AI. Over-expression of HSP70 attenuates caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways and inhibits neuronal apoptosis. J Neurochem 2012;123(4):542–54.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 51.

    Yenari MA, Liu J, Zheng Z, Vexler ZS, Lee JE, et al. Antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of heat-shock protein protection. Ann NY Acad Sci 2005;1053:74–83.Google Scholar

  • 52.

    Kelly S, Yenari MA. Neuroprotection: heat shock proteins. Curr Med Res Opin 2002;18(Suppl 2):s55–60.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 53.

    Leszczynski D, Joenväärä S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation 2002;70(2–3):120–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 54.

    Leak RK, Zhang L, Stetler RA, Weng Z, Li P, et al. HSP27 protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia-induced loss of integrity. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2013;12(3):325–37.Google Scholar

  • 55.

    Di Carlo A, White N, Guo F, Garrett P, Litovitz T. Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection. J Cell Biochem 2002;84(3):447–54.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 56.

    Ohmori H, Kanayama N. Mechanisms leading to autoantibody production: link between inflammation and autoimmunity. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2003;2(3):232–41.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 57.

    Profumo E, Buttari B, Riganò R. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular inflammation: its involvement in autoimmune responses. Int J Inflam 2011;2011:295705.Google Scholar

  • 58.

    Lin H, Opler M, Head M, Blank M, Goodman R. Electromagnetic field exposure induces rapid, transitory heat shock factor activation in human cells. J Cell Biochem 1997;66(4):482–88.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 59.

    Tsurita G, Ueno S, Tsuno NH, Nagawa H, Muto T. Effects of exposure to repetitive pulsed magnetic stimulation on cell proliferation and expression of heat shock protein 70 in normal and malignant cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;261(3):689–94.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 60.

    Bozic B, Cucnik S, Kveder T, Rozman B. Autoimmune reactions after electro-oxidation of IgG from healthy persons: relevance of electric current and antioxidants. Ann NY Acad Sci 2007;1109:158–66.Google Scholar

  • 61.

    Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG, Keefe TJ, Pitrat CA. Reduced excretion of a melatonin metabolite in workers exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150(1):27–36.Google Scholar

  • 62.

    Kovács J, Brodner W, Kirchlechner V, Arif T, Waldhauser F. Measurement of urinary melatonin: a useful tool for monitoring serum melatonin after its oral administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(2):666–70.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 63.

    Schmidt R, Schmidt H, Curb JD, Masaki K, White LR, et al. Early inflammation and dementia: a 25-year follow-up of the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Ann Neurol 2002;52(2):168–74.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 64.

    Dik MG, Jonker C, Hack CE, Smit JH, Comijs HC, et al. Serum inflammatory proteins and cognitive decline in older persons. Neurology 2005;64(8):1371–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 65.

    Gazerani P, Pourpak Z, Ahmadiani A, Hemmati A, Kazemnejad A. A correlation between migraine, histamine and immunoglobulin E. Scand J Immunol 2003;57(3):286–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 66.

    Stamataki E, Stathopoulos A, Garini E, Kokkoris S, Glynos C, et al. Serum S100B protein is increased and correlates with interleukin 6, hypoperfusion indices, and outcome in patients admitted for surgical control of hemorrhage. Shock 2013;40(4):274–80.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 67.

    Donato R. S100: a multigenic family of calcium-modulated proteins of the EF-hand type with intracellular and extracellular functional roles. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2001;33(7):637–68.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 68.

    Michetti F, Corvino V, Geloso MC, Lattanzi W, Bernardini C, et al. The S100B protein in biological fluids: more than a lifelong biomarker of brain distress. J Neurochem 2012;120(5):644–59.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 69.

    Sheng JG, Mrak RE, Griffin WS. Glial-neuronal interactions in Alzheimer disease: progressive association of IL-1alpha+ microglia and S100beta+ astrocytes with neurofibrillary tangle stages. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56(3):285–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 70.

    Migheli A, Cordera S, Bendotti C, Atzori C, Piva R, et al. S-100beta protein is upregulated in astrocytes and motor neurons in the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurosci Lett 1999;261(1–2):25–28.Google Scholar

  • 71.

    Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L. Biomarkers in volunteers exposed to mobile phone radiation. Toxicol Lett 2015;235(2):140–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 72.

    Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K, Hardell L. Exposure to an 890-MHz mobile phone-like signal and serum levels of S100B and transthyretin in volunteers. Toxicol Lett 2009;189(1):63–6.Google Scholar

  • 73.

    Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L. Use of wireless telephones and serum S100B levels: a descriptive cross-sectional study among healthy Swedish adults aged 18-65 years. Sci Total Environ 2009;407(2):798–805.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 74.

    Brzezinski A. Melatonin in humans. N Engl J Med 1997;336(3): 186–95.Google Scholar

  • 75.

    Baydas G, Ozer M, Yasar A, Koz ST, Tuzcu M. Melatonin prevents oxidative stress and inhibits reactive gliosis induced by hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2006;71 (Suppl 1):S91–5.Google Scholar

  • 76.

    Wada H, Inagaki N, Yamatodani A, Watanabe T. Is the histaminergic neuron system a regulatory center for whole-brain activity? Trends Neurosci 1991;14(9):415–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 77.

    Onodera K, Yamatodani A, Watanabe T, Wada H. Neuropharmacology of the histaminergic neuron system in the brain and its relationship with behavioral disorders. Prog Neurobiol 1994;42(6):685–702.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 78.

    Haas HL, Sergeeva OA, Selbach O. Histamine in the nervous system. Physiol Rev 2008;88(3):1183–241.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 79.

    Panula P, Nuutinen S. The histaminergic network in the brain: basic organization and role in disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 2013;14(7):472–87.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 80.

    Chen YY, Lv J, Xue XY, He GH, Zhou Y, et al. Effects of sympathetic histamine on vasomotor responses of blood vessels in rabbit ear to electrical stimulation. Neurosci Bull 2010;26(3):219–24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 81.

    Murakami M, Yoshikawa T, Nakamura T, Ohba T, Matsuzaki Y, et al. Involvement of the histamine H1 receptor in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015;458(3):584–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 82.

    Havas M. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system. Rev Environ Health 2013;28(2–3):75–84.Google Scholar

  • 83.

    Adachi N. Cerebral ischemia and brain histamine. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005;50(2):275–86.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 84.

    Dale HH. On some physiological actions of ergot. J Physiol 1906;34(3):163–206.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 85.

    Sick E, Brehin S, André P, Coupin G, Landry Y, et al. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) activate mast cells. Br J Pharmacol 2010;161(2):442–55.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 86.

    Donato R, Sorci G, Riuzzi F, Arcuri C, Bianchi R, et al. S100B’s double life: intracellular regulator and extracellular signal. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009;1793(6):1008–22.Google Scholar

  • 87.

    Goh SY, Cooper ME. Clinical review: the role of advanced glycation end products in progression and complications of diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93(4):1143–52.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 88.

    Padawer J. Quantitative studies with mast cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 1963;103:87–138.Google Scholar

  • 89.

    Marshall JS. Mast-cell responses to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 2004;4(10):787–99.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 90.

    Rinne JO, Anichtchik OV, Eriksson KS, Kaslin J, Tuomisto L, et al. Increased brain histamine levels in Parkinson’s disease but not in multiple system atrophy. J Neurochem 2002;81(5): 954–60.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 91.

    Dux E, Temesvári P, Joó F, Adám G, Clementi F, et al. The blood-brain barrier in hypoxia: ultrastructural aspects and adenylate cyclase activity of brain capillaries. Neuroscience 1984;12(3):951–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 92.

    Gotoh O, Asano T, Koide T, Takakura K. Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. I: the time courses of the brain water, sodium and potassium contents and blood-brain barrier permeability to 125I-albumin. Stroke 1985;16(1):101–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 93.

    Hardebo JE, Beley A. Influence of blood pressure on blood-brain barrier function in brain ischemia. Acta Neurol Scand 1984;70(5):356–9.Google Scholar

  • 94.

    Hatashita S, Hoff JT. Brain edema and cerebrovascular permeability during cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 1990;21(4):582–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 95.

    Vicente E, Degerone D, Bohn L, Scornavaca F, Pimentel A, et al. Astroglial and cognitive effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in the rat. Brain Res 2009;1251:204–12.Google Scholar

  • 96.

    Liu H, Zhang J. Cerebral hypoperfusion and cognitive impairment: the pathogenic role of vascular oxidative stress. Int J Neurosci 2012;122(9):494–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 97.

    Davies AL, Desai RA, Bloomfield PS, McIntosh PR, Chapple KJ, et al. Neurological deficits caused by tissue hypoxia in neuroinflammatory disease. Ann Neurol 2013;74(6):815–25.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 98.

    Pache M, Kaiser HJ, Akhalbedashvili N, Lienert C, Dubler B, et al. Extraocular blood flow and endothelin-1 plasma levels in patients with multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol 2003;49(3):164–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 99.

    De Ley G, Demeester G, Leusen L. Cerebral histamine in hypoxia. Arch Int Physiol Biochim 1984;94(4):33–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 100.

    Yu XX, Barger JL, Boyer BB, Brand MD, Pan G, et al. Impact of endotoxin on UCP homolog mRNA abundance, thermoregulation, and mitochondrial proton leak kinetics. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000;279(2):E433–46.Google Scholar

  • 101.

    Astrup J. Energy-requiring cell functions in the ischemic brain. Their critical supply and possible inhibition in protective therapy. J Neurosurg 1982;56(4):482–97.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 102.

    Ribatti D. The crucial role of mast cells in blood-brain barrier alterations. Exp Cell Res 2015. pii: S0014-4827(15)00193-7.Google Scholar

  • 103.

    Lindsberg PJ, Strbian D, Karjalainen-Lindsberg ML. Mast cells as early responders in the regulation of acute blood-brain barrier changes after cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2010;30(4):689–7.Google Scholar

  • 104.

    Nordal RA, Wong CS. Molecular targets in radiation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;62(1):279–87.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 105.

    Block ML, Zecca L, Hong JS. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurosci 2007;8(1):57–69.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 106.

    Frank-Cannon TC, Alto LT, McAlpine FE, Tansey MG. Does neuroinflammation fan the flame in neurodegenerative diseases? Mol Neurodegener 2009;4:47.Google Scholar

  • 107.

    O’Connor TM, O’Connell J, O’Brien DI, Goode T, Bredin CP, et al. The role of substance P in inflammatory disease. J Cell Physiol 2004;201(2):167–80.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 108.

    Raslan F, Schwarz T, Meuth SG, Austinat M, Bader M, et al. Inhibition of bradykinin receptor B1 protects mice from focal brain injury by reducing blood-brain barrier leakage and inflammation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2010;30(8):1477–86.Google Scholar

  • 109.

    Zhu J, Qu C, Lu X, Zhang S. Activation of microglia by histamine and substance P. Cell Physiol Biochem 2014;34(3):768–80.Google Scholar

  • 110.

    Kettenmann H, Hanisch UK, Noda M, Verkhratsky A. Physiology of microglia. Physiol Rev 2011;91(2):461–553.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 111.

    Ammari M, Brillaud E, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakly M, et al. Effect of a chronic GSM 900 MHz exposure on glia in the rat brain. Biomed Pharmacother 2008;62(4):273–81.Google Scholar

  • 112.

    Hösli L, Hösli E, Schneider U, Wiget W. Evidence for the existence of histamine H1- and H2-receptors on astrocytes of cultured rat central nervous system. Neurosci Lett 1984;48(3):287–91.Google Scholar

  • 113.

    Dong Y, Benveniste EN. Immune function of astrocytes. Glia 2001;36(2):180–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 114.

    Majno G, Gilmore V, Leventhal M. On the mechanism of vascular leakage caused by histaminetype mediators. A microscopic study in vivo. Circ Res 1967;21(6):833–47.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 115.

    Mayhan WG. Regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability. Microcirculation 2001;8(2):89–104.Google Scholar

  • 116.

    Gurney KJ, Estrada EY, Rosenberg GA. Blood-brain barrier disruption by stromelysin-1 facilitates neutrophil infiltration in neuroinflammation. Neurobiol Dis 2006;23(1):87–96.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 117.

    Moretti R, Pansiot J, Bettati D, Strazielle N, Ghersi-Egea JF, et al. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in disorders of the developing brain. Front Neurosci 2015;9:40.Google Scholar

  • 118.

    Kasparová S, Brezová V, Valko M, Horecký J, Mlynárik V, et al. Study of the oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic brain hypoperfusion. Neurochem Int 2005;46(8):601–11.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 119.

    Oscar KJ, Hawkins TD. Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats. Brain Res 1977;126(2):281–93.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 120.

    Oscar KJ, Gruenau SP, Folker MT, Rapoport SI. Local cerebral blood flow after microwave exposure. Brain Res 1981;204(1):220–5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 121.

    Albert EN, Kerns JM. Reversible microwave effects on the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res 1981;230(1–2):153–64.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 122.

    Nittby H, Grafström G, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Brun A, et al. Radiofrequency and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier. Electromagn Biol Med 2008;27(2):103–26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 123.

    Reiter RJ. Melatonin suppression by static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: relationship to the reported increased incidence of cancer. Rev Environ Health 1994;10 (3–4):171–86.Google Scholar

  • 124.

    Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG, Keefe TJ, Pitrat CA. Nocturnal excretion of a urinary melatonin metabolite among electric utility workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1998;24(3):183–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 125.

    Pfluger DH, Minder CE. Effects of exposure to 16.7 Hz magnetic fields on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion of Swiss railway workers. J Pineal Res 1996;21(2):91–100.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 126.

    Reiter RJ. Melatonin in the context of the reported bioeffects of environmental electromagnetic fields. Bioelectroch Bioener 1998;47:135–42.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 127.

    Reiter RJ, Pablos MI, Agapito TT, Guerrero JM. Melatonin in the context of the free radical theory of aging. Ann NY Acad Sci 1996;786:362–78.Google Scholar

  • 128.

    Reiter R, Tang L, Garcia JJ, Muñoz-Hoyos A. Pharmacological actions of melatonin in oxygen radical pathophysiology. Life Sci 1997;60(25):2255–71.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 129.

    The Bioinitiative report 2012. A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF). Available at: www.bioinitiative.org.

  • 130.

    Girgert R, Hanf V, Emons G, Gründker C. Signal transduction of the melatonin receptor MT1 is disrupted in breast cancer cells by electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 2010;31(3):237–45.Google Scholar

  • 131.

    Hendrick JP, Hartl FU. The role of molecular chaperones in protein folding. FASEB J 1995;9(15):1559–69.Google Scholar

  • 132.

    Banecka-Majkutewicz Z, Grabowski M, Kadziński L, Papkov A, Węgrzyn A, et al. Increased levels of antibodies against heat shock proteins in stroke patients. Acta Biochim Pol 2014;61(2):379–83.Google Scholar

  • 133.

    Tanaka S, Ichikawa A. Recent advances in molecular pharmacology of the histamine systems: immune regulatory roles of histamine produced by leukocytes. J Pharmacol Sci 2006;101(1):19–23.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 134.

    Johansson O. Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields-A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment. Pathophysiology 2009;16(2–3):157–77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 135.

    Gangi S, Johansson O. A theoretical model based upon mast cells and histamine to explain the recently proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans. Med Hypotheses 2000;54(4):663–71.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 136.

    Pall ML. Post-radiation syndrome as a NO/ONOO- cycle, chronic fatigue syndrome-like disease. Med Hypotheses 2008;71(4):537–41.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 137.

    Levallois P. Hypersensitivity of human subjects to environmental electric and magnetic field exposure: a review of the literature. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(Suppl 4):613–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 138.

    Theoharides TC, Donelan J, Kandere-Grzybowska K, Konstantinidou A. The role of mast cells in migraine pathophysiology. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005;49(1):65–76.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 139.

    Ozturk A, Degirmenci Y, Tokmak B, Tokmak A. Frequency of migraine in patients with allergic rhinitis. Pak J Med Sci 2013;29(2):528–31.Google Scholar

  • 140.

    Alstadhaug KB. Histamine in migraine and brain. Headache 2014;54(2):246–59.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 141.

    Renkawek K, Bosman GJ, de Jong WW. Expression of small heat-shock protein hsp 27 in reactive gliosis in Alzheimer disease and other types of dementia. Acta Neuropathol 1994;87(5):511–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 142.

    Renkawek K, Stege GJ, Bosman GJ. Dementia, gliosis and expression of the small heat shock proteins hsp27 and alpha B-crystallin in Parkinson’s disease. Neuroreport 1999;10(11):2273–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 143.

    Donato R. Intracellular and extracellular roles of S100 proteins. Microsc Res Tech 2003;60(6):540–51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 144.

    Andreazza AC, Cassini C, Rosa AR, Leite MC, de Almeida LM, et al. Serum S100B and antioxidant enzymes in bipolar patients. J Psychiatr Res 2007;41(6):523–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 145.

    Donato R, Cannon BR, Sorci G, Riuzzi F, Hsu K, et al. Functions of S100 proteins. Curr Mol Med 2013;13(1):24–57.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 146.

    Mu H, Wang X, Lin P, Yao Q, Chen C. Nitrotyrosine promotes human aortic smooth muscle cell migration through oxidative stress and ERK1/2 activation. Biochim Biophys Acta 2008;1783(9):1576–84.Google Scholar

  • 147.

    Kimata H. Effect of exposure to volatile organic compounds on plasma levels of neuropeptides, nerve growth factor and histamine in patients with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2004;207(2):159–63.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 148.

    Irigaray P, Belpomme D. Basic properties and molecular mechanisms of exogenous chemical carcinogens. Carcinogenesis 2010;31(2):135–48.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 149.

    McKeown-Eyssen G, Baines C, Cole DE, Riley N, Tyndale RF, et al. Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR. Int J Epidemiol 2004;33(5):971–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 150.

    Schnakenberg E, Fabig KR, Stanulla M, Strobl N, Lustig M, et al. A cross-sectional study of self-reported chemical-related sensitivity is associated with gene variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Environ Health 2007;6:6.Google Scholar

  • 151.

    Caccamo D, Cesareo E, Mariani S, Raskovic D, Ientile R, et al. Xenobiotic sensor- and metabolism-related gene variants in environmental sensitivity-related illnesses: a survey on the Italian population. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013;2013:831969.Google Scholar

  • 152.

    Berg ND, Rasmussen HB, Linneberg A, Brasch-Andersen C, Fenger M, et al. Genetic susceptibility factors for multiple chemical sensitivity revisited. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2010;213(2):131–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 153.

    De Luca C, Scordo MG, Cesareo E, Pastore S, Mariani S, et al. Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010;248(3):285–92.Google Scholar

  • 154.

    Kirschvink JL, Kobayashi-Kirschvink A, Woodford BJ. Magnetite biomineralization in the human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89(16):7683–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 155.

    Kirschvink JL, Walker MM, Diebel CE. Magnetite-based magnetoreception. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2001;11(4):462–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 156.

    Kirschvink JL. Microwave absorption by magnetite: a possible mechanism for coupling nonthermal levels of radiation to biological systems. Bioelectromagnetics 1996;17(3):187–94.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 157.

    De Luca C, Scordo G, Cesareo E, Raskovic D, Genovesi G, et al. Idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI): from molecular epidemiology to molecular medicine. Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48(7):625–35.Google Scholar

  • 158.

    Costa A, Branca V, Minoia C, Pigatto PD, Guzzi G. Heavy metals exposure and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Sci Total Environ 2010;408(20):4919–20.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 159.

    Burns-Naas LA, Meade BJ, Munson AE. Toxic responses of the immune system. In: Klaassen CD, editor. Casarett and Doull’s toxicology: the basic of poisons, 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001:419–70.Google Scholar

  • 160.

    Gardner RM, Nyland JF, Evans SL, Wang SB, Doyle KM, et al. Mercury induces an unopposed inflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117(12):1932–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 161.

    Goyer RA, Clarkson TW. Toxic effects of metals. In: Klaassen CD, editor. Casarett and Doull’s toxicology: the basic of poisons, 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001:822–6.Google Scholar

  • 162.

    Minoia C, Ronchi A, Pigatto PD, Guzzi G. Blood lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations in the Korean population. Environ Res 2010;110(5):532.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 163.

    Mortazavi SM, Daiee E, Yazdi A, Khiabani K, Kavousi A, et al. Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11(8):1142–6.Google Scholar

  • 164.

    Störtebecker P. Mercury poisoning from dental amalgam through a direct nose-brain transport. Lancet 1989;1(8648):1207.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 165.

    Miller CS. Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance – an emerging theory of disease? Environ Health Perspect 1997;105(Suppl 2): 445–53.Google Scholar

  • 166.

    Rubin LL, Staddon JM. The cell biology of the blood-brain barrier. Annu Rev Neurosci 1999;22:11–28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 167.

    Löscher W, Potschka H. Role of drug efflux transporters in the brain for drug disposition and treatment of brain diseases. Prog Neurobiol 2005;76(1):22–76.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 168.

    Meairs S, Alonso A. Ultrasound, microbubbles and the blood-brain barrier. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2007;93(1–3): 354–62.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 169.

    Smith MW, Gumbleton M. Endocytosis at the blood-brain barrier: from basic understanding to drug delivery strategies. J Drug Target 2006;14(4):191–214.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 170.

    Stam R. Electromagnetic fields and the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res Rev 2010;65(1):80–97.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 171.

    Mrak RE, Griffin WS. Glia and their cytokines in progression of neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Aging 2005;26(3):349–54.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 172.

    Griffin WS. Inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(2):470S–4S.Google Scholar

  • 173.

    Erickson MA, Banks WA. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction as a cause and consequence of Alzheimer’s disease. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013;33(10):1500–13.Google Scholar

  • 174.

    Bell RD, Zlokovic BV. Neurovascular mechanisms and blood-brain barrier disorder in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathol 2009;118(1):103–13.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 175.

    Akiyama H, Barger S, Barnum S, Bradt B, Bauer J, et al. Inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2000;21(3):383–421.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 176.

    Sastre M, Klockgether T, Heneka MT. Contribution of inflammatory processes to Alzheimer’s disease: molecular mechanisms. Int J Dev Neurosci 2006;24(2–3):167–76.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 177.

    Ionov ID. Self-amplification of nigral degeneration in Parkinson’s disease: a hypothesis. Int J Neurosci 2008;118(12):1763–80.Google Scholar

  • 178.

    Jadidi-Niaragh F, Mirshafiey A. Histamine and histamine receptors in pathogenesis and treatment of multiple sclerosis. Neuropharmacology 2010;59(3):180–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 179.

    Anderson G, Berk M, Dodd S, Bechter K, Altamura AC, et al. Immuno-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and neuroprogressive pathways in the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2013;42:1–4.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 180.

    Ng F, Berk M, Dean O, Bush AI. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2008;11(6):851–76.Google Scholar

  • 181.

    Patel JP, Frey BN. Disruption in the blood-brain barrier: the missing link between brain and body inflammation in bipolar disorder? Neural Plast 2015;2015:708306.Google Scholar

  • 182.

    Berk M, Kapczinski F, Andreazza AC, Dean OM, Giorlando F, et al. Pathways underlying neuroprogression in bipolar disorder: focus on inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011;35(3):804–17.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 183.

    Merritt JH, Chamness AF, Allen SJ. Studies on blood-brain barrier permeability after microwave-radiation. Radiat Environ Biophys 1978;15(4):367–77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 184.

    Avsenik J, Bisdas S, Popovic KS. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography. Radiol Oncol 2015;49(2):107–14.Google Scholar

  • 185.

    Uttara B, Singh AV, Zamboni P, Mahajan RT. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options. Curr Neuropharmacol 2009;7(1):65–74.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 186.

    Galasko D, Montine TJ. Biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease. Biomark Med 2010;4(1):27–36.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 187.

    Heneka MT, O’Banion MK. Inflammatory processes in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuroimmunol 2007;184(1–2):69–91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 188.

    Tachibana H, Meyer JS, Kitagawa Y, Tanahashi N, Kandula P, et al. Xenon contrast CT-CBF measurements in parkinsonism and normal aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 1985;33(6):413–21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 189.

    Abe Y, Kachi T, Kato T, Arahata Y, Yamada T, et al. Occipital hypoperfusion in Parkinson’s disease without dementia: correlation to impaired cortical visual processing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74(4):419–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 190.

    Kikuchi A, Takeda A, Kimpara T, Nakagawa M, Kawashima R, et al. Hypoperfusion in the supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insular cortex in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 2001;193(1):29–36.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 191.

    Kasama S, Tachibana H, Kawabata K, Yoshikawa H. Cerebral blood flow in Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer’s disease according to three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection imaging. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2005;19(5–6):266–75.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 192.

    Derejko M, Slawek J, Wieczorek D, Brockhuis B, Dubaniewicz M, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson’s disease as an indicator of cognitive impairment. Nucl Med Commun 2006;27(12): 945–51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 193.

    Sobel E, Davanipour Z, Sulkava R, Erkinjuntti T, Wikstrom J, et al. Occupations with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a possible risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Epidemiol 1995:142(5):515–24.Google Scholar

  • 194.

    Sobel E, Dunn M, Davanipour Z, Qian Z, Chui HC. Elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease among workers with likely electromagnetic field exposure. Neurol 1996;47(6):1477–81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 195.

    Qiu C, Fratiglioni L, Karp A, Winblad B, Bellander T. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Epidemiol 2004;15(6): 687–94.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 196.

    Davanipour Z, Sobel E. Long-term exposure to magnetic fields and the risks of Alzheimer’s disease and breast cancer: further biological research. Pathophysiol 2009;16(2–3):149–56.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 197.

    Garcia AM, Sisternas A, Hoyos SP. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol 2008:37(2):329–40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 198.

    Arendash GW, Sanchez-Ramos J, Mori T, Mamcarz M, Lin X, et al. Electromagnetic field treatment protects against and reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease mice. J Alzheimers Dis 2010;19(1):191–210.Google Scholar

  • 199.

    Söderqvist F, Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH. Radiofrequency fields, transthyretin, and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2010;20(2):599–606.Google Scholar

  • 200.

    Purdey M. Elevated levels of ferrimagnetic metals in foodchains supporting the Guam cluster of neurodegeneration: do metal nucleated crystal contaminants [corrected] evoke magnetic fields that initiate the progressive pathogenesis of neurodegeneration? Med Hypotheses 2004;63(5):793–809.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 201.

    Hallberg O, Oberfeld G. Letter to the editor: will we all become electrosensitive? Electromagn Biol Med 2006;25(3):189–91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 202.

    World Health Organisation. Electromagnetic fields (300 Hz– 300 GHz) 1993. Available at: http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc137.htm.

  • 203.

    Gibson PR, Kovach S, Lupfer A. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity. J Multidisc Healthcare 2015;8:59–66.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Philippe Irigaray, PhD, ARTAC, 57-59 rue de la convention, 75015 Paris, Phone: +33 (0)1 45 78 53 54, Fax: +33 (0)1 45 78 53 50, E-mail: ; Association for Research and Treatments Against Cancer (ARTAC), F-75015 Paris, France; and European Cancer and Environment Research Institute (ECERI), Brussels, Belgium

Received: 2015-09-11

Accepted: 2015-11-02

Published Online: 2015-11-27

Published in Print: 2015-12-01

Conflicts of interest statement: All the authors declare no financial conflict of interests.

Citation Information: Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 251–271, ISSN (Online) 2191-0308, ISSN (Print) 0048-7554, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.

Export Citation

©2015 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Erdal Eroğlu, Merve Erken, Mustafa Geçin, Zeynep Demirekin, and Selçuk Çömlekçi
SDÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 2019
Ju Hwan Kim, Jin-Koo Lee, Hyung-Gun Kim, Kyu-Bong Kim, and Hak Rim Kim
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, 2019, Volume 27, Number 3, Page 265
Maël Dieudonné
Bioelectromagnetics, 2019, Volume 40, Number 3, Page 188
Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Helena Marcos-Pasero, Rocío de la Iglesia, Isabel Espinosa-Salinas, Ana Ramírez de Molina, Guillermo Reglero, and Viviana Loria-Kohen
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English ed.), 2018
Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Helena Marcos-Pasero, Rocío de la Iglesia, Isabel Espinosa-Salinas, Ana Ramírez de Molina, Guillermo Reglero, and Viviana Loria-Kohen
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición, 2018
Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin, and Devra Lee Davis
Environmental Research, 2018
Viviana Loria-Kohen, Helena Marcos-Pasero, Rocío de la Iglesia, Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Isabel Espinosa-Salinas, Jesús Herranz, Ana Ramírez de Molina, and Guillermo Reglero
Medicina Clínica (English Edition), 2017
Scott Eberle
Ecopsychology, 2017, Volume 9, Number 2, Page 106
Stephen J. Genuis and Edmond Kyrillos
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 2017, Volume 27, Number 7, Page 477
Tamara Tuuminen and Kyösti Sakari Rinne
Frontiers in Immunology, 2017, Volume 8
Viviana Loria-Kohen, Helena Marcos-Pasero, Rocío de la Iglesia, Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Isabel Espinosa-Salinas, Jesús Herranz, Ana Ramírez de Molina, and Guillermo Reglero
Medicina Clínica, 2017, Volume 149, Number 4, Page 141
Pamela Reed Gibson
Ecopsychology, 2016, Volume 8, Number 2, Page 131
Pamela Reed Gibson, Mary Cate Horan, and Jacqueline Billy
Health Care for Women International, 2016, Volume 37, Number 12, Page 1289

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in