Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton October 17, 2016

The Accentual Phrase in Singapore English

Adam J. Chong and James Sneed German
From the journal Phonetica

Abstract

This paper reports on a speech production experiment that explores whether the accentual phrase (AP) represents an abstract level of prosodic phrasing in Singapore English. Specifically, it tests whether the right edge of the AP is associated with phrase-final lengthening, the degree of which can be distinguished from lengthening associated with the intonational phrase (IP). Target words were produced in matched sentence contexts in 3 phrasal positions: AP-medial (wordfinal), AP-final, and IP-final. As predicted, target words in AP-final position were longer than those in AP-medial position and shorter than those in IP-final position. Analysis of target duration and f0 together shows that AP boundaries are well discriminated from medial positions. Together, these results strongly support an AP level of phrasing for Singapore English and highlight its role in predicting timing variability.


verified



*Adam J. Chong, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles, 3125 Campbell Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (USA), E-Mail ajchong@ucla.edu

References

1 Arvaniti A (2009): Rhythm, timing and the timing of rhythm. Phonetica 66:46-63.10.1159/000208930Search in Google Scholar

2 Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2015): Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw 61:1-48.Search in Google Scholar

3 Beckman ME, Edwards J (1990): Lengthenings and shortenings and the nature of prosodic constituency; in Kingston J, Beckman ME (eds): Papers in Laboratory Phonology: Between the Grammar and the Physics of Speech. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 1-16.Search in Google Scholar

4 Beckman M, Pierrehumbert J (1986): Intonational structure in Japanese and English. Phonol Yearb 3:255-309.10.1017/S095267570000066XSearch in Google Scholar

5 Bao Z (2006): Clash avoidance and metrical opacity in Singapore English. Sprachtypol Universalienforsch 59:133-147.Search in Google Scholar

6 Bigi B (2015): SPPAS - multi-lingual approaches to the automatic annotation of speech. Phonetician 111-112/I-II: 54-69.Search in Google Scholar

7 Boersma P, Weenink D (2015): Praat: doing phonetics by computer (Computer program). Version 5.4.19, retrieved 12 June 2015 from http://www.praat.org/.Search in Google Scholar

8 Chong AJ (2013): Towards a model of Singaporean English intonational phonology. Proc Meet Acoust 19:1-9.10.1121/1.4800916Search in Google Scholar

9 Chong AJ, German JS (2015): Prosodic phrasing and F0 in Singapore English. Proc 18th ICPhS, Glasgow.Search in Google Scholar

10 Deterding D (1994): The intonation of Singapore English. J Int Phonet Assoc 24:61-72.10.1017/S0025100300005077Search in Google Scholar

11 Deterding D (2001): The measurement of rhythm: a comparison of Singapore English and British English. J Phonet 29:217-230.10.1006/jpho.2001.0138Search in Google Scholar

12 Deterding D (2007): The vowels of the different ethnic groups in Singapore; in Prescott D (ed): English in Southeast Asia: Varieties, Literacies and Literatures. Newcastle, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp 2-29.Search in Google Scholar

13 Deterding D, Poedjosoedarmo GR (2000): To what extent can the ethnic group of young Singaporeans be identified from their speech? In Brown A, Deterding D, Low E-L (eds): The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation. Singapore, Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp 1-9.Search in Google Scholar

14 Grabe E, Low E-L (2002): Acoustic correlates of rhythm class; in Gussenhoven C, Warner N (eds): Laboratory Phonology. Berlin, de Gruyter, vol 4, pp 515-546.Search in Google Scholar

15 Gupta AR (1989): Singapore Colloquial English and Standard English. Singapore J Educ 10:33-39.10.1080/02188798908547659Search in Google Scholar

16 Gupta AR (1994): The Step-Tongue: Children's English in Singapore. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.Search in Google Scholar

17 Gussenhoven C (2014): On the intonation of tonal varieties of English; in Filppula M, Klemola J, Sharma D (eds): The Oxford Handbook of World Englishes Online.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199777716.013.29Search in Google Scholar

18 Horton T, Bretz F, Westfall P (2008): Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biometr J 50:346-363.10.1002/bimj.200810425Search in Google Scholar

19 Jun S-A (1996): The Phonetics and Phonology of Korean Prosody: Intonational Phonology and Prosodic Structure. New York, Garland Press.Search in Google Scholar

20 Jun S-A (1998): The accentual phrase in Korean prosodic hierarchy. Phonology 15:189-226.10.1017/S0952675798003571Search in Google Scholar

21 Jun S-A (2005): Prosodic typology; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 430-458.Search in Google Scholar

22 Jun S-A (2014): Prosody typology: by prominence type, word prosody and macro-rhythm; in Jun S-A (ed): Prosodic Typology II: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 520-539.Search in Google Scholar

23 Jun S-A, Fougeron C (2000): A phonological model of French intonation; in Botinis A (ed): Intonation: Analysis, Modelling and Technology. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 209-242.Search in Google Scholar

24 Jun S-A, Fougeron C (2002): Realizations of accentual phrase in French intonation. Probus 14:147-172.Search in Google Scholar

25 Lim L (2004a): Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam, Benjamins.10.1075/veaw.g33Search in Google Scholar

26 Lim L (2004b): Sounding Singaporean; in Lim L (ed): Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam, Benjamins, pp 19-56.10.1075/veaw.g33.04limSearch in Google Scholar

27 Lim L (2009): Revisiting English prosody: (Some) new Englishes as tone languages? English Worldwide 30:218-239.10.1075/eww.30.2.06limSearch in Google Scholar

28 Lim L, Tan YY (2001): How are we stressed?! Phonetic correlates and stress placement in Singaporean English; in Maidment JA, Estebas i Vilaplana E (eds): Proceedings of Phonetics and Teaching Learning Conference 2001. London, University College London, pp 27-30.Search in Google Scholar

29 Low E-L (1994): Intonation Patterns in Singapore English; MPhil thesis, University of Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

30 Low E-L (1998): Prosodic prominence in Singapore English; PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

31 Low E-L (2000): Is lexical stress placement different in Singapore English and British English? In Brown A, Deterding D, Low E-L (eds): The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation. Singapore, Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp 22-34.Search in Google Scholar

32 Low E-L (2006): A cross-varietal comparison of deaccenting and given information: implications for international intelligibility and pronunciation teaching. TESOL Q 4:739-761.Search in Google Scholar

33 Low E-L, Brown A (2005): English in Singapore: An Introduction. Singapore, McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

34 Low E-L, Grabe E (1999): A contrastive study of prosody and lexical stress placement in Singapore English and British English. Lang Speech 42:39-56.10.1177/00238309990420010201Search in Google Scholar

35 Low E-L, Grabe E, Nolan F (2000): Quantitative characteristics of speech rhythm: syllable-timing in Singapore English. Lang Speech 43:377-401.10.1177/00238309000430040301Search in Google Scholar

36 Ng E-C (2011): Reconciling stress and tone in Singaporean English; in Zhang L, Rubdy R, Alsagoff L (eds): Asian Englishes: Changing Perspectives in a Globalised World. Singapore, Pearson Longman, pp 48-59.Search in Google Scholar

37 Pierrehumbert JB (1980): The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation; PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Search in Google Scholar

38 Pierrehumbert JB, Beckman ME (1988): Japanese Tone Structure (Linguistic Inquiry Monograph Series No. 15). MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

39 Platt J (1975): The Singapore English speech continuum and its basilect ‘Singlish' as a ‘creoloid'. Anthropol Linguist 17:363-374.Search in Google Scholar

40 Platt J (1977): A model for polyglossia and multilingualism (with special reference to Singapore and Malaysia). Lang Soc 6:361-378.10.1017/S0047404500005066Search in Google Scholar

41 Platt J, Weber H (1980): English in Singapore and Malaysia. Status, Features, Functions. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

42 Price PJ, Ostendorf M, Shattuck-Hufnagel S, Fong C (1991): The use of prosody in syntactic disambiguation. J Acoust Soc Am 90:2956-2970.10.1121/1.401770Search in Google Scholar

43 Psychology Software Tools Inc (2012): E-Prime 2.0. http://www.psnet.com.Search in Google Scholar

44 R Core Team (2015): R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.Search in Google Scholar

45 Ramus F, Nespor M, Mehler J (1999): Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition 72:1-28.10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00058-XSearch in Google Scholar

46 Singapore Department of Statistics (2010): Census of population 2010. Statistical release 1: Demographic characteristics, education, language and religion. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/publications/publications-and-papers/cop2010/census10_stat_release1.Search in Google Scholar

47 Streeter L (1978): Acoustic determinants of phrase boundary perception. J Acoust Soc Am 64:1582-1592.10.1121/1.382142Search in Google Scholar

48 Tan YY (2003): Acoustic and perceptual properties of stress in the ethnic subvarieties of Singapore English; PhD dissertation, National University of Singapore.Search in Google Scholar

49 Tan YY (2006): Is the stressed syllable stressed? The perception of prominence in Singapore English; in Hashim A, Hassan N (eds): Varieties of English in Southeast Asia and Beyond. Kuala Lumpur, University of Malaya Press, pp 113-152.Search in Google Scholar

50 Tan YY (2010): Singing the same tune? Prosodic norming in bilingual Singaporeans; in Ferreira MC (ed): Multilingual Norms. Frankfurt, Lang, pp 173-194.Search in Google Scholar

51 Tay MWJ (1982): The phonology of educated Singapore English. English Worldwide 3:135-145.10.1075/eww.3.2.02taySearch in Google Scholar

52 Tongue RK (1979): The English of Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore, Eastern Universities Press.Search in Google Scholar

53 Wightman CW, Shattuck-Hufnagel S, Ostendorf F, Price PJ (1992): Segmental durations in the vicinity of prosodic phrase boundaries. J Acoust Soc Am 91:1707-1717.10.1121/1.402450Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-01-19
Accepted: 2016-06-04
Published Online: 2016-10-17
Published in Print: 2017-05-01

© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

Scroll Up Arrow