Skip to content
Publicly Available Published by De Gruyter June 6, 2013

Definitions of terms relating to mass spectrometry (IUPAC Recommendations 2013)

  • Kermit K. Murray , Robert K. Boyd , Marcos N. Eberlin , G. John Langley , Liang Li and Yasuhide Naito

This document contains recommendations for terminology in mass spectrometry. Development of standard terms dates back to 1974 when the IUPAC Commission on Analytical Nomenclature issued recommendations on mass spectrometry terms and definitions. In 1978, the IUPAC Commission on Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy updated and extended the recommendations and made further recommendations regarding symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The IUPAC Physical Chemistry Division Commission on Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy’s Subcommittee on Mass Spectroscopy revised the recommended terms in 1991 and appended terms relating to vacuum technology. Some additional terms related to tandem mass spectrometry were added in 1993 and accelerator mass spectrometry in 1994. Owing to the rapid expansion of the field in the intervening years, particularly in mass spectrometry of biomolecules, a further revision of the recommendations has become necessary. This document contains a comprehensive revision of mass spectrometry terminology that represents the current consensus of the mass spectrometry community.

Project Year: 2003, Project Code: 2003-056-2-500


1 10.1351/pac199163101541, J. F. J. Todd. Pure Appl. Chem.63, 1541 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

2 10.1016/0168-1176(95)93811-F, J. F. J. Todd. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes142, 211 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

3 10.1351/pac199365051021, K. Biemann. Pure Appl. Chem.65, 1021 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

4 10.1351/pac199466020305, Y.-F. Liu, Z.-Y. Guo, X.-Q. Liu, T. Qu, J.-L. Xie. Pure Appl. Chem.66, 305 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

5 IUPAC. Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature, 3rd ed. (the “Orange Book”). Prepared for publication by J. Inczédy, T. Lengyel, A. M. Ure, Blackwell Science, Oxford (1998).Search in Google Scholar

6 10.1351/goldbook, IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the “Gold Book”). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006–) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins.Search in Google Scholar

7 IUPAC. Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, 3rd ed. (the “Green Book”). Prepared for publication by E. R. Cohen, T. Cvitaš, J. G. Frey, B. Holmström, K. Kuchitsu, R. Marquardt, I. Mills, F. Pavese, M. Quack, J. Stohner, H. L. Strauss, M. Takami, A. J. Thor, RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK (2007).Search in Google Scholar

8 10.1016/1044-0305(91)80025-3, P. Price. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.2, 336 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

9 American Society for Mass Spectrometry: in Google Scholar

10 O. D. Sparkman. Mass Spec Desk Reference, Global View Publishing, Pittsburgh (2006).Search in Google Scholar

11 A. I. Mallet, S. Down. Dictionary of Mass Spectrometry, John Wiley, Chichester (2010).Search in Google Scholar

12 K. K. Murray. J. Chromatogr., A1217, 3922 (2010).10.1016/j.chroma.2010.03.013Search in Google Scholar

13 R. G. Cooks, A. L. Rockwood. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.5, 93 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

14 J. Beynon. Pure Appl. Chem.50, 65 (1978).10.1351/pac197850010065Search in Google Scholar

15 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2787(1998)17:1<1::AID-MAS1>3.0.CO;2-K, A. G. Marshall, C. L. Hendrickson, G. S. Jackson. Mass Spectrom. Rev.17, 1 (1998).Search in Google Scholar

16 10.1002/mas.1280100102, M. Bursey. Mass Spectrom. Rev.10, 1 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

17 10.1016/1044-0305(92)87078-D, J. Adams. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.3, 473 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

18 10.1021/ac60218a047, J. Lederberg, M. Wightman. Anal. Chem.36, 2362 (1964).Search in Google Scholar

19 10.1021/ac60308a011, F. W. Karasek, R. J. Smythe. Anal. Chem.43, 2008 (1971).Search in Google Scholar

20 T. Hirschfeld. Anal. Chem.52, 297A (1980).10.1021/ac50052a870Search in Google Scholar

21 Conventions adopted by RCM in Advice to Authors. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.17, Issue 1 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

22 10.1073/pnas.0832254100, S. A. Gerber, J. Rush, O. Stemman, M. W. Kirschner, S. P. Gygi. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA100, 6940 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

23 10.1366/000370254774634486, F. White, T. Collins. Appl. Spectrosc.8, 169 (1954).Search in Google Scholar

24 F. W. McLafferty, F. Turecek. Interpretation of Mass Spectra, University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA (1993).Search in Google Scholar

25 10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00403-3, A. W. T. Bristow, K. S. Webb. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.14, 1086 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

26 10.1021/ac00208a002, R. D. Smith, J. A. Loo, C. G. Edmonds, C. J. Barinaga, H. R. Udseth. Anal. Chem.62, 882 (1990).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

27 10.1021/ac0002386, T. P. Conrads, G. A. Anderson, T. D. Veenstra, L. Pa?a-Toli?, R. D. Smith. Anal. Chem.72, 3349 (2000).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

28 10.1002/bms.1200111109, P. Roepstorff, J. Fohlman. Biomed. Mass Spectrom.11, 601 (1984).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

29 10.1002/hlca.19760590111, R. Houriet, T. Gäumann. Helvetica Chim. Acta59, 119 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

30 10.1016/0168-1176(89)83026-5, E. Kluft, N. M. M. Nibbering. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes92, 171 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

31 10.1021/ac60171a054, H. E. Lumpkin, G. E. Taylor. Anal. Chem.33, 476 (1961).Search in Google Scholar

32 10.1021/ja00476a009, R. Houriet, T. A. Elwood, J. H. Futrell. J. Am. Chem. Soc.100, 2320 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

33 10.1021/jp906691a, N. S. Shuman, W. R. Stevens, K. Lower, T. Baer. J. Phys. Chem. A113, 10710 (2009).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

34 10.1126/science.1119426, R. G. Cooks, Z. Ouyang, Z. Takats, J. M. Wiseman. Science311, 1566 (2006).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

35 10.1373/49.7.1041, T. M. Annesley. Clin. Chem.49, 1041 (2003).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

36 10.1021/ja109042w, B. Gulbakan, E. Yasun, M. I. Shukoor, Z. Zhu, M. You, X. Tan, H. Sanchez, D. H. Powell, H. Dai, W. Tan. J. Am. Chem. Soc.132, 17408 (2010).Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

37 10.1021/j150616a008, P. H. Hemberger, J. A. Laramée, A. R. Hubik, R. G. Cooks. J. Phys. Chem.85, 2335 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

38 10.1002/mas.1280130303, L. Van Vaeck, H. Struyf, W. V. Roy, F. Adams. Mass Spectrom. Rev.13, 209 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

39 10.1002/bms.1200170214, J. A. Hill, S. A. Martin, J. E. Biller, K. Biemann. Biomed. Env. Mass Spectrom.17, 147 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

40 10.1016/0006-291X(87)91354-4, L. C. Taylor, D. A. Brent, J. S. Cottrell. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.145, 542 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

41 10.1063/1.1672150, D. K. Bohme, D. B. Dunkin, F. C. Fehsenfeld, E. E. Ferguson. J. Chem. Phys.51, 863 (1969).Search in Google Scholar

42 10.1021/ac60364a031, D. I. Carroll, I. Dzidic, R. N. Stillwell, K. D. Haegele, E. C. Horning. Anal. Chem.47, 2369 (1975).Search in Google Scholar

43 E. Rosenberg. J. Chromatogr., A1000, 841 (2003).10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00603-4Search in Google Scholar

44 10.1021/ac990998k, V. V. Laiko, M. A. Baldwin, A. L. Burlingame. Anal. Chem.72, 652 (2000).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

45 10.1021/ac0001636, D. B. Robb, T. R. Covey, A. P. Bruins. Anal. Chem.72, 3653 (2000).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

46 10.1103/RevModPhys.84.1527, P. J. Mohr, B. N. Taylor, D. B. Newell. Rev. Mod. Phys.84, 1527 (2012).Search in Google Scholar

47 10.1088/0370-1298/69/1/308, B. H. Bransden, A. Dalgarno. Proc. Phys. Soc., London A69, 65 (1956).Search in Google Scholar

48 S. Singh, R. K. Boyd, F. M. Harris, J. H. Beynon. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 373 (1985).Search in Google Scholar

49 10.1016/j.trac.2005.07.007, I. Manisali, D. Chen, B. Schneider. Trends Anal. Chem.25, 243 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

50 10.1039/ja9920701231, C. Pan, G. Zhu, R. F. Browner. J. Anal. At. Spectrom.7, 1231 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

51 10.1021/ac00253a037, J. Yergey, D. Heller, G. Hansen, R. J. Cotter, C. Fenselau. Anal. Chem.55, 353 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

52 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199704)32:4<351::AID-JMS512>3.0.CO;2-Y, R. E. March. J. Mass Spectrom.32, 351 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

53 10.1002/rcm.1290080809, J. A. Marto, S. Guan, A. G. Marshall. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.8, 615 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

54 10.1021/ac00106a011, C. L. Hendrickson, D. A. Laude. Anal. Chem.67, 1717 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

55 W. M. A. Niessen. In The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, M. L. Gross, R. M. Caprioli (Eds.), Elsevier (2006).Search in Google Scholar

56 T. P. J. Izod, J. M. Tedder. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A337, 333 (1974).Search in Google Scholar

57 10.1021/ja00225a008, T. Baer, J. C. Morrow, J. D. Shao, S. Olesik. J. Am. Chem. Soc.110, 5633 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

58 10.1002/mas.10074, R. C. Dunbar. Mass Spectrom. Rev.23, 127 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

59 10.1021/ja973655h, N. L. Kelleher, H. Y. Lin, G. A. Valaskovic, D. J. Aaserud, E. K. Fridriksson, F. W. McLafferty. J. Am. Chem. Soc.121, 806 (1999).Search in Google Scholar

60 10.1126/science.1133987, B. T. Chait. Science314, 65 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

61 10.1002/mas.20249, D. J. Douglas. Mass Spectrom. Rev.28, 937 (2009).Search in Google Scholar

62 10.1002/mas.1280100103, J. F. J. Todd. Mass Spectrom. Rev.10, 3 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

63 10.1016/j.jasms.2003.12.016, J. Meija, J. A. Caruso. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.15, 654 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

64 10.1021/ac8016532, C. J. Hogan, J. A. Carroll, H. W. Rohrs, P. Biswas, M. L. Gross. Anal. Chem.81, 369 (2009).Search in Google Scholar

65 10.1039/b418056a, B. Gologan, J. R. Green, J. Alvarez, J. Laskin, R. G. Cooks. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.7, 1490 (2005).Search in Google Scholar

66 10.1016/S1044-0305(97)00283-3, C. Cheng, D. Giblin, M. L. Gross. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.9, 216 (1998).Search in Google Scholar

67 10.1016/0009-3084(89)90063-7, A. Savagnac, H. Aurelle, C. Casas, F. Couderc, P. Gavard, D. Prome, J. C. Prome. Chem. Phys. Lipids51, 31 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

68 10.1002/bms.1200130602, K. B. Tomer, N. J. Jensen, M. L. Gross, J. Whitney. Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom.13, 265 (1986).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

69 10.1021/ac049767q, X. Czeszak, W. Morelle, G. Ricart, D. Tétaert, J. Lemoine. Anal. Chem.76, 4320 (2004).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

70 10.1021/j100240a026, M. Rabrenović, C. J. Proctor, T. Ast, C. G. Herbert, A. G. Brenton, J. H. Beynon. J. Phys. Chem.87, 3305 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

71 10.1063/1.1730740, P. S. Rudolph, C. E. Melton. J. Chem. Phys.32, 586 (1960).Search in Google Scholar

72 10.1021/j100076a016, J. M. Dyke, A. M. Shaw, T. G. Wright. J. Phys. Chem.98, 6327 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

73 10.1002/rcm.1290080924, T. J. Cornish, R. J. Cotter. Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom.8, 781 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

74 10.1088/0950-7671/43/9/305, B. L. Schram, B. Adamczyks, A. J. H. Boerboom. J. Sci. Instrum.43, 638 (1966).Search in Google Scholar

75 10.1021/ac60325a040, J. M. Miller, J. Ross, J. Rustenburg, G. L. Wilson. Anal. Chem.45, 627 (1973).Search in Google Scholar

76 10.1016/1044-0305(92)87067-9, D. J. Douglas, J. B. French. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.3, 398 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

77 10.1021/ac00128a039, R. K. Boyd, P. A. Bott, B. R. Beer, D. J. Harvan, J. R. Hass. Anal. Chem.59, 189 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

78 10.1002/mas.1280120402, A. K. Shukla, J. H. Futrell. Mass Spectrom. Rev.12, 211 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

79 10.1016/0020-7381(81)80034-4, S. A. McLuckey, G. L. Glish, R. G. Cooks. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.39, 219 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

80 10.1021/ja00475a072, R. A. Yost, C. G. Enke. J. Am. Chem. Soc.100, 2274 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

81 10.1016/S0584-8547(02)00069-1, S. D. Tanner, V. I. Baranov, D. R. Bandura. Spectrochim. Acta, Part B57, 1361 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

82 10.1021/ac00149a003, A. P. Bruins, T. R. Covey, J. D. Henion. Anal. Chem.59, 2642 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

83 10.1021/ac00171a014, K. B. Tomer, C. R. Guenat, L. J. Deterding. Anal. Chem.60, 2232 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

84 10.1063/1.1685899, S. S. Brenner, J. T. McKinney. Rev. Sci. Instrum.43, 1264 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

85 10.1016/0165-9936(88)90024-6, R. M. Caprioli. Trends Anal. Chem.7, 328 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

86 10.1021/ac00127a012, R. M. Caprioli, T. Fan, J. S. Cottrell. Anal. Chem.58, 2949 (1986).Search in Google Scholar

87 10.1021/ac00052a029, L. Li, A. P. L. Wang, L. D. Coulson. Anal. Chem.65, 493 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

88 10.1016/0020-7381(77)80091-0, R. J. Beuhler, L. Friedman. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.23, 81 (1977).Search in Google Scholar

89 10.1289/ehp.803685, G. C. Stafford. Environ. Health Perspect.36, 85 (1980).Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

90 10.1063/1.1137055, K. Rinn, A. Muller, H. Eichenauer, E. Salzborn. Rev. Sci. Instrum.53, 829 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

91 F. W. Peek. Dielectric Phenomena in High-Voltage Engineering, McGraw-Hill (1929).Search in Google Scholar

92 E. C. Huang, T. Wachs, J. J. Conboy, J. D. Henion. Anal. Chem.62, 713 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

93 10.1021/ac00280a023, C. M. Whitehouse, R. N. Dreyer, M. Yamashita, J. B. Fenn. Anal. Chem.57, 675 (1985).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

94 10.1021/ac00250a020, B. Thomson, J. Iribarne, P. Dziedzic. Anal. Chem.54, 2219 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

95 W. M. A. Niessen, A. P. Tinke. J. Chromatogr., A703, 37 (1995).10.1016/0021-9673(94)01198-NSearch in Google Scholar

96 10.1021/ac00278a003, R. C. Willoughby, R. F. Browner. Anal. Chem.56, 2626 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

97 10.1002/rcm.1290091407, M. M. Cordero, T. J. Cornish, R. J. Cotter, I. A. Lys. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.9, 1356 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

98 10.1088/0022-3727/11/8/001, W. K. Van Asselt, B. Poelsema, A. L. Boers. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.11, L107 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

99 10.1146/annurev.biochem.70.1.437, M. Mann, R. C. Hendrickson, A. Pandey. Ann. Rev. Biochem.70, 437 (2001).Search in Google Scholar

100 10.1016/j.jasms.2006.02.023, H. S. Gadgil, G. D. Pipes, T. M. Dillon, M. J. Treuheit, P. V. Bondarenko. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.17, 867 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

101 10.1016/1044-0305(92)85033-G, B. N. Colby. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.3, 558 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

102 R. J. Cotter. Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Instrumentation and Applications in Biological Research, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1997).Search in Google Scholar

103 10.1002/rcm.1290091115, M. L. Vestal, P. Juhasz, S. A. Martin. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.9, 1044 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

104 10.1002/rcm.1290080405, M. Takayama. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.8, 309 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

105 M. Vincenti. Int. J. Mass Spectrom.212, 505 (2001).10.1016/S1387-3806(01)00492-4Search in Google Scholar

106 10.1002/oms.1210161004, U. Schade, R. Stoll, F. W. Röllgen. Org. Mass Spectrom.16, 441 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

107 10.1039/b418697d, Z. Takats, I. Cotte-Rodriguez, N. Talaty, H. Chen, R. G. Cooks. Chem. Commun. 1950 (2005).Search in Google Scholar

108 10.1021/ja00370a009, K. L. Busch, S. E. Unger, A. Vincze, R. G. Cooks, T. Keough. J. Am. Chem. Soc.104, 1507 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

109 J. Wei, J. M. Buriak, G. Siuzdak. Nature399, 243 (1999).10.1038/20400Search in Google Scholar

110 10.1002/pro.5560020207, S. A. Carr, M. J. Huddleston, M. F. Bean. Protein Sci.2, 183 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

111 10.1021/ac902176k, H. Hayen, A. Michels, J. Franzke. Anal. Chem.81, 10239 (2009).Search in Google Scholar

112 10.1016/0168-1176(88)80060-0, R. S. Johnson, S. A. Martin, K. Biemann. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes86, 137 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

113 10.1021/ac50038a045, R. J. Cotter. Anal. Chem.51, 317 (1979).Search in Google Scholar

114 E. Gelpí. J. Chromatogr., A1000, 567 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

115 A. E. Ashcroft. Ionization Methods in Organic Mass Spectrometry, Royal Society of Chemistry (1997).10.1039/9781847551191Search in Google Scholar

116 10.1002/bms.1200070306, J. D. Henion, G. A. Maylin. Biomed. Mass Spectrom.7, 115 (1980).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

117 10.1103/PhysRevA.27.1717, W. Sandner, R. Kachru, K. A. Safinya, F. Gounand, W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher. Phys. Rev. A27, 1717 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

118 10.1016/j.jasms.2007.07.015, L. Song, A. D. Wellman, H. Yao, J. E. Bartmess. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.18, 1789 (2007).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

119 10.1021/ja00301a041, T. M. Sack, R. L. Cerny, M. L. Gross. J. Am. Chem. Soc.107, 4562 (1985).Search in Google Scholar

120 10.1002/mas.1280070202, S. Hammerum. Mass Spectrom. Rev.7, 123 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

121 10.1021/ac50019a010, P. C. Price, H. S. Swofford, S. E. Buttrill. Anal. Chem.49, 1487 (1977).Search in Google Scholar

122 10.1021/j100313a058, S. F. Wong, C. K. Meng, J. B. Fenn. J. Phys. Chem.92, 546 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

123 10.1002/rcm.1827, B. M. Kohli, J. K. Eng, R. M. Nitsch, U. Konietzko. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.19, 589 (2005).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

124 10.1039/a701724c, H. A. Donsig, J. C. Vickerman. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans.93, 2755 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

125 10.1088/0022-3735/5/2/019, A. Adams, F. H. Read. J. Phys. E5, 150 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

126 10.1021/ac60333a011, B. N. Colby, C. A. Evans. Anal. Chem.45, 1884 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

127 10.1063/1.1685481, C. A. Evans, C. D. Hendricks. Rev. Sci. Instrum.43, 1527 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

128 10.1016/0020-7381(74)85006-0, D. S. Simons, B. N. Colby, J. C. A. Evans. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.15, 291 (1974).Search in Google Scholar

129 10.1021/ja973478k, R. A. Zubarev, N. L. Kelleher, F. W. McLafferty. J. Am. Chem. Soc.120, 3265 (1998).Search in Google Scholar

130 10.1021/ac00165a015, H. K. Lim, D. Andrenyak, P. Francom, R. L. Foltz, R. T. Jones. Anal. Chem.60, 1420 (1988).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

131 10.1073/pnas.0402700101, J. E. Syka, J. J. Coon, M. J. Schroeder, J. Shabanowitz, D. F. Hunt. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA101, 9528 (2004).Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

132 10.1126/science.2675315, J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wong, C. M. Whitehouse. Science246, 64 (1989).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

133 10.1063/1.1670391, M. Dole, L. L. Mack, R. L. Hines, R. C. Mobley, L. D. Ferguson, M. B. Alice. J. Chem. Phys.49, 2240 (1968).Search in Google Scholar

134 J. H. Moore, C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan. Building Scientific Apparatus, Westview Press (2002).Search in Google Scholar

135 10.1002/oms.1210150202, M. Karni, A. Mandelbaum. Org. Mass Spectrom.15, 53 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

136 S. Kim, R. P. Rodgers, A. G. Marshall. Int. J. Mass Spectrom.251, 260 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

137 J. J. Vrbanac, W. E. Braselton, J. F. Holland, C. C. Sweeley. J. Chromatogr.239, 265 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

138 10.1002/bms.1200051210, V. T. Vu, F. P. Abramson. Biomed. Mass Spectrom.5, 686 (1978).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

139 10.1002/elps.200410424, M. Pelzing, C. Neususs. Electrophoresis26, 2717 (2005).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

140 X. Zhao, Y. Lu, D. R. Phillips, H.-M. Hwang, I. R. Hardin. J. Chromatogr., A1159, 217 (2007).10.1016/j.chroma.2006.10.072Search in Google Scholar

141 10.1002/rcm.632, P. Mauri, M. Minoggio, P. Simonetti, C. Gardana, P. Pietta. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.16, 743 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

142 10.1016/0006-291X(81)91304-8, H. R. Morris, M. Panico, M. Barber, R. S. Bordoli, R. D. Sedgwick, A. N. Tyler. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm.101, 623 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

143 10.1002/oms.1210270621, M. Hamdan. Org. Mass Spectrom.27, 759 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

144 R. A. Klein. J. Lipid Res.12, 628 (1971).10.1016/S0022-2275(20)39483-9Search in Google Scholar

145 P. H. Dawson. Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and Its Applications, Elsevier, New York (1976).Search in Google Scholar

146 10.1002/bms.1200150508, L. O. G. Weidolf, E. D. Lee, J. D. Henion. Biol. Mass Spectrom.15, 283 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

147 H. F. Schröder. J. Chromatogr., A647, 219 (1993).10.1016/0021-9673(93)83404-GSearch in Google Scholar

148 10.1016/0168-1176(89)83029-0, J. A. Hill, J. E. Biller, S. A. Martin, K. Biemann, K. Yoshidome, K. Sato. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes92, 211 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

149 10.1016/0020-7381(82)80041-7, M. J. Farncombe, R. S. Mason, K. R. Jennings, J. Scrivens. Int J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.44, 91 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

150 10.1021/ac50033a050, D. H. Smith, W. J. Yeager, T. C. Rindfleisch. Anal. Chem.50, 1585 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

151 M. Scigelova, M. Hornshaw, A. Giannakopulos, A. Makarov. Mol. Cell. Proteomics10, 1 (2011).10.1074/mcp.M111.009431Search in Google Scholar

152 10.1016/1044-0305(91)80026-4, G. Glish. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.2, 349 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

153 10.1016/1044-0305(90)85042-K, G. C. Thorne, K. D. Ballard, S. J. Gaskell. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.1, 249 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

154 W. M. Brubaker. Adv. Mass Spectrom.4, 293 (1968).Search in Google Scholar

155 10.1016/1044-0305(93)85001-E, R. S. Gohlke, F. W. McLafferty. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.4, 367 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

156 10.1080/05704928108060402, J. Coburn, W. Harrison. Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.17, 95 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

157 10.1002/jms.1190300802, F. L. King, J. Teng, R. E. Steiner. J. Mass Spectrom.30, 1061 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

158 R. P. Schmid, C. Weickhardt. Int. J. Mass Spectrom.206, 181 (2001).Search in Google Scholar

159 10.1021/ac00264a048, D. L. Bricker, T. A. Adams, D. H. Russell. Anal. Chem.55, 2417 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

160 10.1086/183835, N. C. Blais, D. G. Truhlar. Astrophys. J.258, L79 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

161 10.1063/1.1149255, R. Purves, R. Guevremont, S. Day, C. Pipich, M. Matyjaszczyk. Rev. Sci. Instrum.69, 4094 (1998).Search in Google Scholar

162 G. E. Spangler. Int. J. Ion Mobility Spectrom.4, 71 (2001).Search in Google Scholar

163 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)77911-1, W. Blum, E. Schlumpf, J. G. Liehr, W. J. Richter. Tetrahedron Lett.17, 565 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

164 10.1016/0006-291X(83)91806-5, S. Sethi, D. Smith, J. McCloskey. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.112, 126 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

165 R. B. Woodward, R. Hoffmann. The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry, Verlag Chemie Academic Press (2004).Search in Google Scholar

166 10.1016/0168-1176(92)85088-H, J. van der Greef, W. M. A. Niessen. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc.118/119, 857 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

167 10.1007/BF02711191, M. Kamruddin, P. K. Ajikumar, S. Dash, A. K. Tyagi, B. Raj. Bull. Mater. Sci.26, 449 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

168 10.1063/1.437143, M. B. Comisarow. J. Chem. Phys.69, 4097 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

169 10.1002/rcm.1290091513, S. D. Fuerstenau, W. H. Benner. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.9, 1528 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

170 D. Kingham, A. Bayly, D. Fathers, P. Vohralik, J. Walls, A. Waugh. Scan. Microsc.1, 463 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

171 10.1021/ac50064a012, R. S. Houk, V. A. Fassel, G. D. Flesch, H. J. Svec, A. L. Gray, C. E. Taylor. Anal. Chem.52, 2283 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

172 H. E. Taylor. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, Academic Press, Boston (2001).10.1016/B978-012683865-7/50003-XSearch in Google Scholar

173 10.1021/ja00404a001, D. S. Bomse, D. W. Berman, J. Beauchamp. J. Am. Chem. Soc.103, 3967 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

174 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)86263-7, C. H. Watson, G. Baykut, M. A. Battiste, J. R. Eyler. Anal. Chim. Acta178, 125 (1985).Search in Google Scholar

175 10.1021/ja00312a040, G. Baykut, C. H. Watson, R. R. Weller, J. R. Eyler. J. Am. Chem. Soc.107, 8036 (1985).Search in Google Scholar

176 10.1002/rcm.1290091310, J. Josephs. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.9, 1270 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

177 10.1021/ac049374r, S. Sekiya, Y. Wada, K. Tanaka. Anal. Chem.76, 5894 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

178 10.1002/rcm.1276, C. R. Mallet, Z. Lu, J. R. Mazzeo. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.18, 49 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

179 10.1063/1.432536, J. V. Iribarne, B. A. Thomson. J. Chem. Phys.64, 2287 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

180 10.1021/jp034561z, V. Znamenskiy, I. Marginean, A. Vertes. J. Phys. Chem. A107, 7406 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

181 S. A. Shaffer, K. Q. Tang, G. A. Anderson, D. C. Prior, H. R. Udseth, R. D. Smith. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.11, 1813 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

182 10.1002/jms.1383, A. B. Kanu, P. Dwivedi, M. Tam, L. Matz, H. H. Hill. J. Mass Spectrom.43, 1 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

183 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2787(1998)17:6<369::AID-MAS1>3.0.CO;2-J, S. A. McLuckey, J. L. Stephenson Jr. Mass Spectrom. Rev.17, 369 (1998).Search in Google Scholar

184 10.1021/cr010375i, K. Dreisewerd. Chem. Rev.103, 395 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

185 10.1016/0021-9169(75)90160-9, J. N. Brownlee. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.37, 1139 (1975).Search in Google Scholar

186 10.1016/0020-7381(83)85048-7, G. E. Spangler, J. P. Carrico. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.52, 267 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

187 10.1021/ar00012a002, R. D. Bowen. Acc. Chem. Res.24, 364 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

188 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199711)32:11<1179::AID-JMS574>3.0.CO;2-B, T. Matsuo, M. Toyoda, T. Sakurai, M. Ishihara. J. Mass Spectrom.32, 1179 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

189 E. de Hoffmann, J. Charette, V. Stroobant, J. Trottier. Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, John Wiley, Chichester (1996).Search in Google Scholar

190 10.1016/S0168-1176(97)00210-3, F. Dubois, R. Knochenmuss, R. Zenobi. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes169, 89 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

191 J. P. Holder, L. Gruber, H. E. DeWitt, B. R. Beck, D. A. Church, D. Schneider. Phys. Scr., T92, 158 (2001).10.1238/Physica.Topical.092a00158Search in Google Scholar

192 P. L. Ross, Y. N. Huang, J. N. Marchese, B. Williamson, K. Parker, S. Hattan, N. Khainovski, S. Pillai, S. Dey, S. Daniels, S. Purkayastha, P. Juhasz, S. Martin, M. Bartlet-Jones, F. He, A. Jacobson, D. J. Pappin. Mol. Cell Proteomics3, 1154 (2004).10.1074/mcp.M400129-MCP200Search in Google Scholar

193 10.1093/jxb/erj168, L. R. Zieske. J. Exp. Bot.57, 1501 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

194 10.1038/13690, S. P. Gygi, B. Rist, S. A. Gerber, F. Turecek, M. H. Gelb, R. Aebersold. Nat. Biotech.17, 994 (1999).Search in Google Scholar

195 10.1021/ac60322a014, L. J. Moore, L. A. Machlan. Anal. Chem.44, 2291 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

196 T. B. Coplen. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.25, 2538 (2011).10.1002/rcm.5129Search in Google Scholar

197 10.1351/PAC-REP-09-01-05, W. A. Brand, S. S. Assonov, T. B. Coplen. Pure Appl. Chem.82, 1719 (2010).Search in Google Scholar

198 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199603)31:3<225::AID-JMS319>3.0.CO;2-L, W. A. Brand. J. Mass Spectrom.31, 225 (1996).Search in Google Scholar

199 10.1021/ac60210a019, R. Ryhage. Anal. Chem.36, 759 (1964).Search in Google Scholar

200 10.1016/0020-7381(72)80064-0, G. A. Junk. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.8, 1 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

201 10.1002/jms.164, J. Laskin, C. Lifshitz. J. Mass Spectrom.36, 459 (2001).Search in Google Scholar

202 10.1255/ejms.476, C. Lifshitz. Eur. J. Mass Spectrom.8, 85 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

203 10.1021/ac991131p, A. Makarov. Anal. Chem.72, 1156 (2000).Search in Google Scholar

204 10.1007/s00216-007-1486-6, M. Bantscheff, M. Schirle, G. Sweetman, J. Rick, B. Kuster. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.389, 1017 (2007).Search in Google Scholar

205 10.1366/0003702953965399, R. E. Russo. Appl. Spectrosc.49, 14A (1995).Search in Google Scholar

206 10.1063/1.1661832, J. M. Chen, C. C. Chang. J. Appl. Phys.43, 3884 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

207 10.1021/ac00232a045, E. D. Hardin, M. L. Vestal. Anal. Chem.53, 1492 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

208 10.1021/ac00238a722, E. Denoyer, R. Van Grieken, F. Adams, D. F. S. Natusch. Anal. Chem.54, 26A (1982).Search in Google Scholar

209 10.1063/1.345215, G. R. Janik, J. D. Prestage, L. Maleki. J. Appl. Phys.67, 6050 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

210 10.1002/oms.1210070913, M. A. Baldwin, F. W. McLafferty. Org. Mass Spectrom.7, 1111 (1973).Search in Google Scholar

211 P. J. Arpino, B. G. Dawkins, F. W. McLafferty. J. Chromatogr. Sci.12, 574 (1974).Search in Google Scholar

212 10.1002/rcm.1290031009, N. J. Reinhoud, W. M. A. Niessen, U. R. Tjaden, L. G. Gramberg, E. R. Verheij, J. van der Greef. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.3, 348 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

213 10.1002/bms.1200180408, E. D. Lee, W. Muck, J. D. Henion, T. R. Covey. Biol. Mass Spectrom.18, 253 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

214 10.1016/0003-2697(86)90317-9, A. M. Falick, F. C. Walls, R. A. Laine. Anal. Biochem.159, 132 (1986).Search in Google Scholar

215 C. G. Edmonds, J. A. Loo, C. J. Barinaga, H. R. Udseth, R. D. Smith. J. Chromatogr., A474, 21 (1989).10.1016/S0021-9673(01)93899-3Search in Google Scholar

216 10.1021/ac00156a013, R. D. Smith, J. A. Olivares, N. T. Nguyen, H. R. Udseth. Anal. Chem.60, 436 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

217 10.1021/cr990091m, K. B. Tomer. Chem. Rev.101, 297 (2001).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

218 J. V. Olsen, L. M. F. de Godoy, G. Li, B. Macek, P. Mortensen, R. Pesch, A. Makarov, O. Lange, S. Horning, M. Mann. Mol. Cell Proteomics4, 2010 (2005).10.1074/mcp.T500030-MCP200Search in Google Scholar PubMed

219 10.1002/oms.1210190508, A. Weisz, A. Mandelbaum, J. Shabanowitz, D. F. Hunt. Org. Mass Spectrom.19, 238 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

220 10.1016/0020-7381(83)87004-1, R. L. Hunter, M. G. Sherman, R. T. McIver. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.50, 259 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

221 10.1016/0168-1176(83)85016-2, J. B. Jeffries, S. E. Barlow, G. H. Dunn. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes54, 169 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

222 J. H. Beynon, R. G. Cooks. Res. Dev.22, 26 (1971).Search in Google Scholar

223 10.1088/0950-7671/35/8/306, J. H. Beynon, S. Clough. J. Sci. Instrum.35, 289 (1958).Search in Google Scholar

224 10.1021/ac60206a048, E. Kendrick. Anal. Chem.35, 2146 (1963).Search in Google Scholar

225 10.1021/ac50034a021, K. V. Wood, A. H. Grange, J. W. Taylor. Anal. Chem.50, 1652 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

226 10.1063/1.451838, L.-S. Zheng, C. M. Karner, P. J. Brucat, S. H. Yang, C. L. Pettiette, M. J. Craycraft, R. E. Smalley. J. Chem. Phys.85, 1681 (1986).Search in Google Scholar

227 10.1126/science.6385250, M. L. Gross, D. L. Rempel. Science226, 261 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

228 10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00446-X, F. A. Londry, J. W. Hager. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.14, 1130 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

229 10.1016/0168-1176(84)80077-4, G. C. Stafford, P. E. Kelley, J. E. P. Syka, W. E. Reynolds, J. F. J. Todd. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes60, 85 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

230 10.1021/ac60351a028, F. P. Abramson. Anal. Chem.47, 45 (1975).Search in Google Scholar

231 10.1016/0020-7381(69)80005-7, P. H. Dawson, N. R. Whetten. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.2, 45 (1969).Search in Google Scholar

232 10.1016/0168-1176(87)87041-6, M. Karas, D. Bachman, U. Bahr, F. Hillenkamp. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes78, 53 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

233 10.1021/ac8018312, A. Cappiello, G. Famiglini, P. Palma, E. Pierini, V. Termopoli, H. Trufelli. Anal. Chem.80, 9343 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

234 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2787(2000)19:1<1::AID-MAS1>3.0.CO;2-Y, R. C. Johnson, R. G. Cooks, T. M. Allen, M. E. Cisper, P. H. Hemberger. Mass Spectrom. Rev.19, 1 (2000).Search in Google Scholar

235 10.1007/BF02533783, V. I. Dukhanov, A. G. Zelenkov, A. A. Kurashov, I. B. Mazurov, Y. F. Rodionov, I. N. Serikov, V. P. Tarasevich. J. Radioanal. Chem.58, 161 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

236 10.1016/0165-0270(95)00070-4, M. R. Emmett, P. E. Andren, R. M. Caprioli. J. Neurosci. Meth.62, 141 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

237 10.1021/ac60267a009, D. R. Olander, W. W. Waddel. Anal. Chem.40, 1687 (1968).Search in Google Scholar

238 10.1021/ac60364a020, W. Fock. Anal. Chem.47, 2447 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

239 10.1007/BF00323101, P. Arpino. Fresenius’ J. Anal. Chem.337, 667 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

240 P. O. Edlund, J. D. Henion. J. Chromatogr. Sci.27, 274 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

241 W. H. McFadden, H. L. Schwarz, S. Evans. J. Chromatogr., A122, 389 (1976).10.1016/S0021-9673(00)82261-XSearch in Google Scholar

242 10.1021/ja00395a086, D. Zakett, A. Schoen, R. Cooks, P. Hemberger. J. Am. Chem. Soc.103, 1295 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

243 10.1039/an9941900533, G. L. Glish. Analyst119, 533 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

244 10.1007/s00216-007-1660-x, C. B. Douthitt. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.390, 437 (2008).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

245 10.1021/ac010617e, D. A. Wolters, M. P. Washburn, J. R. Yates. Anal. Chem.73, 5683 (2001).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

246 10.1021/j100511a002, D. Zakett, R. G. A. Flynn, R. G. Cooks. J. Phys. Chem.82, 2359 (1977).Search in Google Scholar

247 10.1021/ac9509519, M. Wilm, M. Mann. Anal. Chem.68, 1 (1996).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

248 10.1126/science.2305261, F. W. McLafferty. Science247, 925 (1990).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

249 10.1021/ja00516a064, D. Zakett, A. E. Schoen, R. W. Kondrat, R. G. Cooks. J. Am. Chem. Soc.101, 6781 (1979).Search in Google Scholar

250 10.1103/PhysRev.105.1014, W. H. Johnson, A. O. Nier. Phys. Rev.105, 1014 (1957).Search in Google Scholar

251 10.1021/ac00075a016, M. W. Senko, S. C. Beu, F. W. McLafferty. Anal. Chem.66, 415 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

252 10.1002/rcm.1290021006, J. A. Loo, H. R. Udseth, R. D. Smith. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.2, 207 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

253 10.1021/j150664a002, M. Yamashita, J. B. Fenn. J. Phys. Chem.88, 4451 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

254 W. M. A. Niessen. J. Chromatogr., A856, 179 (1999).10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00480-XSearch in Google Scholar

255 10.1002/kin.550221108, F. L. Wiseman, F. Ozturk, M. C. Zerner, J. R. Eyler. Int. J. Chem. Kin.22, 1189 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

256 C. Blakley, J. Carmody, M. Vestal. Clin. Chem.26, 1467 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

257 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2787(1996)15:5<283::AID-MAS1>3.0.CO;2-E, A. Cappiello. Mass Spectrom. Rev.15, 283 (1996).Search in Google Scholar

258 10.1002/bms.1200010607, C. G. Hammar, G. Pettersson, P. T. Carpenter. Biomed. Mass Spectrom.1, 397 (1974).Search in Google Scholar

259 10.1002/rcm.3389, F. Li, J. Maguigad, M. Pelzer, X. Jiang, Q. C. Ji. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22, 486 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

260 10.1007/s00216-007-1742-9, P. Z. Vroon, B. van der Wagt, J. M. Koornneef, G. R. Davies. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.390, 465 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

261 10.1016/0168-1176(89)83044-7, K. P. Wanczek. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes95, 1 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

262 10.1016/0960-9822(93)90195-T, D. J. C. Pappin, P. Hojrup, A. J. Bleasby. Curr. Biol.3, 327 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

263 10.1021/ac00096a002, M. Mann, M. Wilm. Anal. Chem.66, 4390 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

264 10.1016/0020-7381(81)80026-5, I. W. Griffiths, E. S. Mukhtar, R. E. March, F. M. Harris, J. H. Beynon. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.39, 125 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

265 10.1021/ac00013a003, T. R. Covey, E. C. Huang, J. D. Henion. Anal. Chem.63, 1193 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

266 10.1002/rcm.1290040905, A. M. Falick, K. F. Medzihradszky, F. C. Walls. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.4, 318 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

267 10.1016/0168-1176(86)87037-9, G. H. Wang, W. Aberth, A. M. Falick. Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Processes69, 233 (1986).Search in Google Scholar

268 10.1021/j100203a022, B. Spengler, D. Kirsch, R. Kaufmann. J. Phys. Chem.96, 9678 (1992).Search in Google Scholar

269 10.1002/oms.1210090710, F. W. McLafferty, R. H. Hertel, R. D. Villwock. Org. Mass Spectrom.9, 690 (1974).Search in Google Scholar

270 10.1021/ac60243a023, C. Sweeley, W. Elliott, I. Fries, R. Ryhage. Anal. Chem.38, 1549 (1966).Search in Google Scholar

271 10.1016/0168-1176(87)87050-7, S. A. Martin, K. Biemann. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes78, 213 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

272 10.1139/v82-079, J. W. Larson, R. L. Clair, T. B. McMahon. Can. J. Chem.60, 542 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

273 R. G. Ewing, G. A. Eiceman, C. S. Harden, J. A. Stone. Int. J. Mass Spectrom.255–256, 76 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

274 10.1351/pac198254020255, I. Lüderwald. Pure Appl. Chem.54, 255 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

275 A. W. Colburn, A. E. Giannakopulos, P. J. Derrick, M. Von Raumer. Eur. J. Mass Spectrom.6, 523 (2000).Search in Google Scholar

276 10.1021/ac00061a018, J. P. Speir, G. S. Gorman, C. C. Pitsenberger, C. A. Turner, P. P. Wang, I. J. Amster. Anal. Chem.65, 1746 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

277 10.1021/ac00061a019, S. Guan, M. Wahl, T. Wood, A. Marshall. Anal. Chem.65, 1753 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

278 10.1021/ac00277a007, G. L. Glish, D. E. Goeringer. Anal. Chem.56, 2291 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

279 10.1038/nmeth774, R. J. Beynon, M. K. Doherty, J. M. Pratt, S. J. Gaskell. Nature Meth.2, 587 (2005).Search in Google Scholar

280 10.1073/pnas.38.8.667, H. M. Rosenstock, M. B. Wallenstein, A. L. Wahrhaftig, H. Eyring. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA38, 667 (1952).Search in Google Scholar

281 10.1016/S1044-0305(96)00212-7, T. Baercor, P. M. Mayer. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.8, 103 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

282 10.1016/0168-1176(90)85024-V, R. E. March, A. W. McMahon, E. T. Allinson, F. A. Londry, R. L. Alfred, J. F. J. Todd, F. Vedel. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes99, 109 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

283 10.1021/ac00072a020, L. Tang, P. Kebarle. Anal. Chem.65, 3654 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

284 B. Munson. Int. J. Mass. Spectrom.200, 243 (2000).10.1016/S1387-3806(00)00301-8Search in Google Scholar

285 A. G. Harrison. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1992).Search in Google Scholar

286 10.1021/ac049420n, Z. Ouyang, G. Wu, Y. Song, H. Li, W. R. Plass, R. G. Cooks. Anal. Chem.76, 4595 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

287 J. M. Wilson. Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem.63, 270 (1966).Search in Google Scholar

288 10.1016/0168-1176(93)80020-F, Y. G. C. Lifshitz, A. Ioffe, J. Laskin, S. Shaik. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes125, R7 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

289 10.1021/cr990081l, K. M. Ervin. Chem. Rev.101, 391 (2001).Search in Google Scholar

290 B. A. Mamyrin, V. I. Karataev, D. V. Shmikk, V. A. Zagulin. Sov. Phys. JETP37, 45 (1973).Search in Google Scholar

291 J. F. O’Hanlon. A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, John Wiley, New York (2003).Search in Google Scholar

292 10.1016/j.jasms.2007.11.013, G. L. Glish, D. J. Burinsky. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.19, 161 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

293 10.1002/mas.20012, J. Laskin, J. H. Futrell. Mass Spectrom. Rev.24, 135 (2005).Search in Google Scholar

294 10.1063/1.438436, L. Zandee, R. B. Bernstein. J. Chem. Phys.71, 1359 (1979).Search in Google Scholar

295 10.1016/0168-1176(83)85018-6, J. D. Fassett, L. J. Moore, J. C. Travis, F. E. Lytle. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes54, 201 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

296 10.1116/1.570570, J. E. Fulford, D.-N. Hoa, R. J. Hughes, R. E. March, R. F. Bonner, G. J. Wong. J. Vac. Sci. Technol.17, 829 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

297 10.1002/anie.196200981, K. Biemann. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl.1, 98 (1962).Search in Google Scholar

298 R. A. Marcus, O. K. Rice. J. Phys. Colloid Chem.55, 894 (1951).Search in Google Scholar

299 10.1063/1.1700424, R. A. Marcus. J. Chem. Phys.20, 359 (1952).Search in Google Scholar

300 10.1007/s002149900074, S. C. Tucker. Theor. Chem. Acc.103, 209 (2000).Search in Google Scholar

301 10.1021/ja01390a002, O. K. Rice, H. C. Ramsperger. J. Am. Chem. Soc.50, 617 (1928).Search in Google Scholar

302 10.1021/j150284a007, L. S. Kassel. J. Phys. Chem.32, 225 (1928).Search in Google Scholar

303 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.060, E. Schymanski, C. Meinert, M. Meringer, W. Brack. Anal. Chim. Acta615, 136 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

304 10.1116/1.569901, J. Franks. J. Vac. Sci. Technol.16, 181 (1979).Search in Google Scholar

305 M. H. Lamoree, U. R. Tjaden, J. van der Greef. J. Chromatogr., A712, 219 (1995).10.1016/0021-9673(95)00507-JSearch in Google Scholar

306 10.1002/jhrc.1240160204, J. F. Anacleto, R. K. Boyd, M. A. Quilliam. J. High Res. Chromatogr.16, 85 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

307 10.1016/0020-7381(70)85038-0, M. Van Gorkom, R. E. Glick. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.4, 203 (1970).Search in Google Scholar

308 A. Benninghoven, B. Hagenhoff, E. Niehuis. Anal. Chem.65, 630A (1993).10.1021/ac00062a717Search in Google Scholar

309 10.1016/0375-9601(72)90660-3, H. Oechsner, W. Gerhard. Phys. Lett. A40, 211 (1972).Search in Google Scholar

310 D. Lipinsky, R. Jede, O. Ganschow, A. Benninghoven. J. Vac. Sci. Technol.3, 2007 (1985).Search in Google Scholar

311 10.1016/0168-1176(90)85063-8, A. O. Nier. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes100, 1 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

312 10.1016/0020-7381(76)80133-7, N. G. Adams, D. Smith. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.21, 349 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

313 J. T. Watson. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia (1997).Search in Google Scholar

314 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199602)31:2<129::AID-JMS305>3.0.CO;2-T, E. de Hoffmann. J. Mass Spectrom.31, 129 (1996).Search in Google Scholar

315 10.1021/ac00226a011, S. Ghaderi, P. S. Kulkarni, E. B. Ledford, C. L. Wilkins, M. L. Gross. Anal. Chem.53, 428 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

316 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199707)32:7<677::AID-JMS536>3.0.CO;2-G, S. J. Gaskell. J. Mass Spectrom.32, 677 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

317 10.1021/cr068279a, M. L. Fournier, J. M. Gilmore, S. A. Martin-Brown, M. P. Washburn. Chem. Rev.107, 3654 (2007).Search in Google Scholar

318 10.1016/0009-3084(78)90048-8, D. E. Games. Chem. Phys. Lipids21, 389 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

319 10.1021/ac00096a025, A. Hirabayashi, M. Sakairi, H. Koizumi. Anal. Chem.66, 4557 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

320 10.1016/0020-7381(80)85047-9, J. F. J. Todd, R. M. Waldren, R. E. Mather. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys.34, 325 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

321 R. M. Smith. Understanding Mass Spectra, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken (2004).Search in Google Scholar

322 10.1021/ac00185a021, M. Sakairi, H. Kambara. Anal. Chem.61, 1159 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

323 10.1021/pr025523f, H. Jiang, A. M. English. J. Proteome Res.1, 345 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

324 S. E. Ong, B. Blagoev, I. Kratchmarova, D. B. Kristensen, H. Steen, A. Pandey, M. Mann. Mol. Cell Proteomics1, 376 (2002).10.1074/mcp.M200025-MCP200Search in Google Scholar

325 10.1002/rcm.831, H. Zhu, S. Pan, S. Gu, E. M. Bradbury, X. Chen. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.16, 2115 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

326 L. Anderson, C. L. Hunter. Mol. Cell Proteomics5, 573 (2006).10.1074/mcp.M500331-MCP200Search in Google Scholar

327 10.1016/0029-554X(76)90680-7, M. Oron. Nucl. Instrum. Meth.139, 235 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

328 10.1039/df9511000035, D. P. Stevenson. Disc. Faraday Soc.10, 35 (1951).Search in Google Scholar

329 10.1002/oms.1210010408, M. M. Bursey, E. S. Wolfe. Org. Mass Spectrom.1, 543 (1968).Search in Google Scholar

330 10.1002/oms.1210051109, A. G. Harrison, C. D. Finney, J. A. Sherk. Org. Mass Spectrom.5, 1313 (1971).Search in Google Scholar

331 10.1016/S0168-1176(96)04461-8, S. Guan, A. G. Marshall. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes157/158, 5 (1996).Search in Google Scholar

332 10.1063/1.1136785, L. G. Randall, A. L. Wahrhaftig. Rev. Sci. Instrum.52, 1283 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

333 10.1586/14789450.3.1.153, A. M. Dattelbaum, S. Iyer. Exp. Rev. Proteomics 153 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

334 10.1002/rcm.1290070703, T. W. Hutchens, T. T. Yip. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.7, 576 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

335 10.1586/14789450.4.1.51, T. C. W. Poon. Exp. Rev. Proteomics4, 51 (2007).Search in Google Scholar

336 10.1021/ja00839a056, R. G. Cooks, D. T. Terwilliger, T. Ast, J. H. Beynon, T. Keough. J. Am. Chem. Soc.97, 1583 (1995).Search in Google Scholar

337 10.1007/s004600050171, V. Grill, R. Wörgötter, J. H. Futrell, T. D. Mark. Z. Phys. D40, 111 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

338 10.1007/s002160000479, A. Fischer, P. Werner. Fresenius’ J. Anal. Chem.368, 424 (2000).Search in Google Scholar

339 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)80678-9, J. W. Gauthier, T. R. Trautman, D. B. Jacobson. Anal. Chim. Acta246, 211 (1991).Search in Google Scholar

340 10.1021/ac00219a003, J. V. Johnson, R. A. Yost, P. E. Kelley, D. C. Bradford. Anal. Chem.62, 2162 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

341 G. Taylor. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A280, 383 (1964).10.1098/rspa.1964.0151Search in Google Scholar

342 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9888(199707)32:7<677::AID-JMS536>3.0.CO;2-G, S. J. Gaskell. J. Mass Spectrom.32, 677 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

343 10.1021/ac50061a025, C. R. Blakley, J. J. Carmody, M. L. Vestal. Anal. Chem.52, 1636 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

344 10.1021/ac00255a036, C. R. Blakley, M. L. Vestal. Anal. Chem.55, 750 (1983).Search in Google Scholar

345 10.1002/rcm.4551, O. S. Ovchinnikova, G. J. Van Berkel. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.24, 1721 (2010).Search in Google Scholar

346 10.1063/1.1715212, W. C. Wiley, I. H. McLaren. Rev. Sci. Instrum.26, 1150 (1955).Search in Google Scholar

347 10.1073/pnas.251691898, S. K. Sze, Y. Ge, H. Oh, F. W. McLafferty. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA99, 1774 (2002).Search in Google Scholar

348 10.1021/ac0415657, N. L. Kelleher. Anal. Chem.76, 197A (2004).Search in Google Scholar

349 10.1016/j.jasms.2006.02.009, S. A. Lammert, A. A. Rockwood, M. Wang, M. L. Lee, E. D. Lee, S. E. Tolley, J. R. Oliphant, J. L. Jones, R. W. Waite. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.17, 916 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

350 10.1002/bms.1200081207, T. Mizuno, N. Abe, H. Teshima, E. Yamauchi, Y. Itagaki, I. Matsumoto, T. Kuhara, T. Shinka. Biomed. Mass Spectrom.8, 593 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

351 10.1021/ac00135a034, J. A. Olivares, N. T. Nguyen, C. R. Yonker, R. D. Smith. Anal. Chem.59, 1230 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

352 10.1146/, J. T. Watson. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol.13, 391 (1973).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

353 R. M. Smith. Understanding Mass Spectra: A Basic Approach, John Wiley, New York (2004).Search in Google Scholar

354 10.1002/rcm.1290050604, R. D. Voyksner, T. Pack. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.5, 263 (1991).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

355 P. J. Robinson, K. A. Holbrook. Unimolecular Reactions, John Wiley, New York (1972).Search in Google Scholar

356 10.1063/1.1715486, C. F. Robinson. Rev. Sci. Instrum.27, 88 (1956).Search in Google Scholar

357 10.1039/b411975d, T. Staaf, C. Östman. J. Environ. Monitor.7, 344 (2005).Search in Google Scholar PubMed

358 10.1146/annurev.pc.30.100179.000411, A. G. Brenton, R. P. Morgan, J. H. Beynon. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem.30, 51 (1979).Search in Google Scholar

359 10.1088/0031-8949/9/1/014107, H. H. Rose. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.9, 014107 (2008).Search in Google Scholar

Online erschienen: 2013-6-6
Erschienen im Druck: 2013-6-6

© 2013 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 29.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button