Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 12, 2012

The Use of Imagery by Successful Hockey Players: A Comparison Among Skill Levels

Sandra E. Short, Nick Zostautas and Eva V. Monsma


The study provides a comprehensive examination of how successful hockey players use imagery and replicates and extends other imagery research by considering skill level (high school, college and professional). The key variables of interest were the frequency of imagery use, the perceived function of imagery, imagery direction, and confidence in using imagery. Results are presented from the subscale and individual item level as based on the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. Overall, MG-M imagery was used the most, and most images were considered to serve this function. Some images were debilitative - but they were not used very often. Athletes were confident in their ability to use imagery and in most cases confidence was positively correlated with imagery use.

Published Online: 2012-12-12

© 2012 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co.