Ancient and Medieval Foundations of Early Modern Ideas of Peace The first part of the article deals with the equation of peace and order, which originated with Augustus and was and redefined from a theological point of view by St Augustine, who understood peace with God as true peace, without devaluing earthly peace. Later thinkers also ultimately adopted this idea but devoted more attention to earthly peace and related it more closely to the common good. The second part examines the connection of peace with law and justice in the conviction that true peace could only result from striving for law and justice. The third part deals with the influence of friendship discourse on the ideas of peace as it is conveyed by in peace treaties. Also related to this is the idea that forbearance and the willingness to renounce previous legal positions are conducive to peace.