Justice Systems This chapter focuses on the development of the various justice systems in early modern Europe, also taking into consideration the traditions of the medieval era as well as the developments of the nineteenth century. In France, the Parlements served as institutions for dispensing justice, while in the Holy Roman Empire there was a dualistic system of two supreme courts. Developments in the Holy Roman Empire and France are replicated to a considerable degree in Scandinavia. In Spain and Italy there was significant diversity in the justice system leading to the establishment of several regional courts. In comparison with continental Europe, Britain may be regarded as an exception with its early tendencies towards the centralisation of law and politics. Finally, the chapter also draws attention to common features in the development of appeals procedures and to differing national approaches to research into criminal law and penal justice.