Peace Treaties Early modern peace treaties are agreements reached between parties during peace negotiations. This chapter deals with the content of early modern peace treaties, their different formats, composition, and structure, and the languages and metaphors used to justify respective positions. In addition to the opposing parties, mediators and guarantors were also often involved in the process, and powers that were not actually parties to a peace agreement could join the treaty. The method concluding peace treaties gradually changed in the early modern period, as did the terminology used. By contrast, the principle of structuring treaties in paragraphs persisted. Some clauses were often repeated, for example relating to amnesty or drawing a veil over bones of contention (oblivio), attempts to preempt misunderstandings, or the duration of a treaty. An emphasis on the cruelty of war and praise for the mediators are also common features of early modern peace treaties.