Peace Treaties with non-European Rulers. Africa, the Mediterranean, the Ottoman Empire The chapter examines peace treaties involving European and non-European actors in the Mediterranean and some sub-Saharan regions of Africa. The Ottoman empire was a major adversary as well as partner for European powers from the late Middle Ages to the end of the early modern period. Alongside this great imperial power other minor states in North and West Africa were also potential partners in peace and friendship negotiations and treaties. Diplomatic relations in these regions are often intertwined with commercial exchange. This makes it necessary to look beyond Eurocentric legalistic and linguistic categories and to adopt more open approaches to the history of peace treaties and agreements. Peace was often negotiated within spaces of “legal pluralism” and recorded not only in writing but also in rituals and oral tradition.