Negotiating Techniques and Practices Negotiating is a communicative process in which participants come to an agreement, balancing both shared and conflicting interests. During the early modern period conflicts became more complex and increasingly entangled. This required new and more differentiated techniques and practices of negotiation. Contemporaries, such as François de Callières (1645-1717), spoke of the ‘art of negotiation’, which flourished especially during the seventeenth century. This chapter examines early modern negotiating techniques and practices. First, the formal and structural procedures which shaped early modern congresses as well as bilateral negotiations and provided the framework for peace negotiations will be examined. Second, negotiating as a communicative art will be analysed by looking at different practices and techniques for building trust between negotiating parties, at the exertion of pressure, delay, or the injection of new momentum into a negotiation.