Peacemakers and Peacekeepers Owing to the growing frequency of wars in the early modern period, peacemakers and peacekeepers assumed a new significance. Ambassadors were increasingly employed alongside the sovereigns to whom contemporary political theory ascribed a duty to make and keep peace in Christian Europe. The early modern period saw the creation of a professional diplomatic class which came to play a key role in the major multilateral peace conferences of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In addition, other actors contributed in more indirect ways. Scholars and artists, for example, often promoted peace by means of their writings or art, while some military commanders played multiple roles and made only limited contributions to peace making.