The Material Culture of Peacemaking The study of material culture offers profound insights into the complex dynamics of restoring and securing peace in early modern Europe. More than ever before, the social and political order was performed by relations between people, artefacts, and spaces with the aim of establishing and shaping both the procedure and substance of foreign relations in an emerging European state system. This chapter examines three dimensions of the material culture of peace: places and spaces of peace negotiations; peace treaties as artefacts; and souvenirs of peace. It demonstrates how artefact-related practices articulated or counteracted new concepts in foreign affairs such as sovereignty, neutrality, and security. The chapter challenges common notions about the development of early modern peace-making, such as the rationalization of diplomacy. Finally, it explains why economic actors eagerly exploited peace treaties to produce the kind of memorabilia that we are still familiar with today.