The Peace of Zsitvatorok 1606 and the Peace Treaties of the ‘Turkish Wars’ The Peace of Zsitvatorok between the Habsburg Emperor and the Ottoman Sultan in 1606 ended the Thirteen Years’ War (1593-1606) and initiated a period of almost sixty years of relative peace. Balancing the cultural differences between the Ius Publicum Europaeum and the Ottoman law of war and peace, the Peace of Zsitvatorok is often considered to be a milestone in Habsburg-Ottoman relations, for it was the first longterm peace treaty and a settlement reached by two rulers as equals. Despite its textual ambiguity, the Peace of Zsitvatorok served as model for subsequent peace treaties between the Austrian Habsburgs and the Ottoman sultans. Its validity was repeatedly reaffirmed and the principle of parity in Austrian-Ottoman peace negotiations steadily strengthened. In the eighteenth century, the Peace of Zsitvatorok remained a point of reference in peacebuilding processes, even though its ceremonial aspects declined in significance.