Education and socialization both refer to processes of intra- and intergenerational transmission of knowledge and practices. In line with Parsons, German-speaking sociology tends to think of education―as a secondary mode of socialization― in terms of an institutional arrangement that imparts universal competence and knowledge. Consequently, educational research in German-speaking countries concentrates on the analysis of educational school systems. Socialization research, by contrast, tends to focus on all those processes that are embedded in the relationships that make up the life-world. These relationships are also constitutive of education, which builds on socialization. This review of the German-speaking research in the sociology of education and the sociology of socialization follows this division.What becomes apparent is that socialization research is fundamental for a deep understanding of the social constitution of education and the construction of social inequality.