In current societies, research takes an important role as a driver of economic and social development. Therefore, research becomes more strategically relevant than ever. Consequently, research evaluation procedures have been implemented to monitor and steer research. This chapter offers an overview of national research assessment practices and reveals that they differ across countries and even research institutes as evaluations evolved over time. It comes to the conclusion that evaluation designers and research policymakers should establish an explicit link between policy goals and a specific research evaluation procedure taking the national evaluation system into account.