This chapter briefly reviews how bibliometric indicators are used for allocating resources in academia. How these measures can be understood in relation to different evaluation systems is discussed, and various types of applications - including individual level use - are outlined. Furthermore, attention is given to the effect of evaluation in terms of incentives and possible adverse effects. The importance of contextualizing the influence of metrics is emphasised, as individuals and fields are likely to react differently to performance-based assessments. In conclusion, bibliometric measures are perhaps best understood as part of a larger “ecology” in which different types of assessment procedures, funding arrangements and allocation systems interact.