This contribution explores the juridical formative background of Kant’s ethics by placing Kant’s legal and ethical thinking in the context of the modern normative discourse about law and liberty. Section 1 outlines the intrinsically republican profile of much of modern political philosophy. Section 2 features the terminological and conceptual distinction between freedom and liberty. Section 3 addresses the juridico-ethical analogy underlying the normative nature of Kant’s practical philosophy. While the contribution’s title, “eleutheronomy,” comes directly from Kant, its subtitle attributes to Kant, not an esoteric political philosophy, but a practical philosophy, including an ethics, that is inwardly, “esoterically,” shaped and animated by key concepts taken from (modern) political philosophy.