The evolution of nanotechnology and nanoscience has been associated with bringing “the next industrial revolution” as it is capable of introducing better products and improvising manufacturing processes at several levels. Nanotechnology and nanoscience are interdisciplinary subjects and therefore, identifying even a minute detail about this technology continues to be a challenge. In all arenas, simultaneous work is in progress and accomplishments are at varying levels of success. In the military domain, nanotechnology could find several applications ranging from self-healing materials, medical aid (infection control) and nanoelectronics to sensing weapons of mass destruction and combatant protection kits (smart armor, active camouflage). With the dual-use nature of the technology, its impact on the offense-defense balance remains a matter of debate. This chapter explores the impact of nanotechnology on defense and concentrates on its current and futuristic applicability for military purposes. It also looks into the impact of nanotechnology on strategic stability and the way forward.