Taking a passage in al-Iṣṭakhrī as its starting point, this paper presents the Fārs rural elites called mulūk and ahl al-buyūtāt. It argues that these families were the dominant influence in the province, controlling many sources of revenue (including overseas trade routes and agricultural taxes). The main body of the paper is a study of one representative of such a family, Muḥammad b. Wāṣil al-Ḥanẓalī al-Tamīmī. His pedigree can be traced for more than four centuries, from early Islamic times to the 11th century. Finally, the paper discusses earlier scholarship on this figure, showing serious misrepresentations.