Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter 2022

6 A sustainable development approach to promoting water security in Eritrea

From the book Green Chemistry

  • Mahin A. Zaman and Anne E. Marteel-Parrish


Human life cannot exist without water. Yet over two billion people in the world do not have guaranteed access to clean water. The nation of Eritrea in Africa suffers from the highest water insecurity in the world. Of the total population, 80.7% of Eritreans do not have access to clean water. One approach to address water insecurity can be pursued using sustainable development, which is defined as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The definition of sustainable development, in conjunction with the notion of development as freedom and an understanding of the effects of climate change, created a working definition for the pursual of a sustainable development approach. Three United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) were identified as targeted goals: goal 3: good health and well-being; goal 6: clean water and sanitation; and goal 16: peace, justice, and institutions that apply to the alleviation of water insecurity in Eritrea. While these three SDGs are pertinent to the issue, goals 1, 11, and 13 are also applicable. The identification of environmental issues, water insecurity, and institutional issues in Eritrea led to an integrated solution requiring the application of the principles of green chemistry. The usage of moringa seed powder and scallop powder method followed by bio-sand filtration and the usage of magnetic recyclable TiO2 sol-gel particles were determined to be two potential solutions that followed the principles of green chemistry and were sustainable options for Eritrea. The proposed chemistry-based solutions must be used synergistically with the SDGs for the root of the crisis to be addressed. Water security can be achieved through the combination of SDGs, governmental transparency in institutions, aid from international organizations, and the principles of green chemistry.

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston
Downloaded on 6.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button