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BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter 2021

Producing, Distributing and Using Manuscripts for Teaching Purposes at French, English and German Universities in the Late Middle Ages

Michael Baldzuhn


The essay aims to provide a short survey of the production and distribution of manuscripts for academic purposes at European universities in the late Middle Ages. It discusses access to and use of manuscripts, including hybrid situations in which students used private copies, consulted books in a library, or borrowed manuscripts for study. The essay then moves on to illustrate key teaching methods, above all dictation, and raises the question of what parameters we should take into account when reconstructing contexts of learning and teaching from manuscripts, especially when it comes to issues of layout and glossing.

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Munich/Boston
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