Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter 2022

The Bilingual Manuscript with the Irk Bitig: London, British Library, Or.8212/161

From the book Medieval Multilingual Manuscripts

  • Imre Galambos


This tenth-century manuscript from Dunhuang is celebrated for the Old Turkic divination text known as Irk Bitig, the Book of Omens. However, the same manuscript also contains two Chinese Buddhist hymns added to the beginning and the end of the Old Turkic text. Close examination of the manuscript in all its aspects sheds new light on the close interaction of texts, languages and religions in the Silk Road environment.

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston
Downloaded on 1.6.2023 from
Scroll to top button