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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 1, 2005

The Plasminogen Activating System in Periodontal Health and Disease

Bertil Kinnby
From the journal


The plasminogen activating system is important for extracellular proteolysis and plays a regulatory role in interactions with other tissue degrading systems. Studies on the plasminogen activating system in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as well as gingival tissue are reviewed. tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 have all been detected in GCF. Especially tPA and PAI-2 are found in high concentrations. In tissue studies fibrinolytic activity has been found in the gingival pocket epithelium in humans and in animal studies. tPA and PAI-2 have been detected there immunohistochemically. Local production of the PAs and PAIs has been verified with in situ hybridization. In inflammation, a more intense and widespread immunohistochemical staining of tPA and PAI-2 is seen. Higher concentrations of tPA and PAI-2 are found in GCF but the balance between them seems to be constant. A systemically disturbed balance of the plasminogen activating system in GCF has been observed during pregnancy, with a possible protective function of PAI-2. In studies of periodontitis, the production of PAI-2 seemed to be locally lowered at impaired sites. In a study of children, a higher inflammatory response to bacterial plaque was accompanied by a higher fibrinolytic ativity in GCF samples. Bacterial LPS has been found to change the ratio of tPA to PAI-2 in cultured gingival fibroblasts. Interactions between PAI-2 and a protease in the gingival epithelium has been verified through the immunohistochemical detection of relaxed PAI-2.

Published Online: 2005-06-01
Published in Print: 2002-01-23

Copyright © 2002 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG