Activated T lymphocytes express high levels of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV)/CD26. Recent studies support the notion that DP IV may play an important role in the regulation of differentiation and growth of T lymphocytes. This article gives a short overview on DP IV/CD26 expression and effects on immune cells in vitro and in vivo. A major focus of this review are clinical aspects of the function of CD26 on hematopoietic cells and the potential usage of synthetic DP IV inhibitors as therapeutics in inflammatory disorders.
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