Research over the last decade has provided us with much information about the mechanisms that integrate signal transduction pathways with specific gene expression programs. We discuss the types of mechanisms used by different pathways to modulate transcription factor activity, citing examples from diverse molecular systems. Careful regulation of these pathways is essential to maintain balanced transcriptional control. Understanding the mechanisms that control gene activity will enable us to intervene therapeutically in diseases associated with deregulated transcriptional activity.
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