Classical homocystinuria is associated with arterial vascular diseases and venous thrombosis. In the last decade, many studies, including some prospective studies, have been published indicating that moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia is also a risk factor for venous thrombosis. The 677C>T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is an important cause of mild hyperhomocysteinaemia. Recent meta-analyses show an elevated risk of venous thrombosis for subjects with the TT-genotype. Based on the concept of ‘Mendelian randomisation’, this observation supports the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinaemia is a causal risk factor for venous thrombosis. The results of one homocysteine-lowering trial regarding venous thrombosis are awaited at the end of 2003. In this paper the current evidence for hyperhomocysteinaemia as a risk factor for venous thrombosis is being discussed.
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