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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 11, 2007

Prothrombogenic factors and reduced antioxidative defense in children and adolescents with pre-metabolic and metabolic syndrome

Vesna Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Emina Colak, Predrag Djordjevic, Drasko Gostiljac, Branko Sreckovic, Srdjan Popovic, Fadil Canovic, Miroljub Ilic, Radmila Obrenovic, Vladan Vukcevic, Dragan Nikolic, Tanja Nisic, Gordana Milic and Gordana Pejcic
From the journal


Background: The aim of this study was to examine prothrombogenic factors and antioxidative defense in obese children and adolescents with pre-metabolic and metabolic syndrome, and to analyze insulin secretion and resistance, early glycoregulation disorders and lipid status.

Methods: Insulin sensitivity was determined using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), while insulin secretion was determined using the homeostasis model assessment β (HOMA-β). Prothrombogenic factors analyzed were plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured as markers of antioxidative defense.

Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome were characterized with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β levels, and all had increased blood pressure and triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, increased PAI-1 levels and reduced antioxidative defense levels. Patients with pre-metabolic syndrome had higher levels of basal and mean insulinemia during an oral glucose tolerance test, higher levels of HOMA-β and lower levels of antioxidative defense compared to patients with metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: Negative correlations between antioxidative defense parameters and BMI, abdominal obesity, insulin secretion, systolic blood pressure and atherogenic lipid factors, as well as correlations between PAI-1 and insulin resistance and basal glycemia in the metabolic syndrome group contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Positive correlations between PAI-1 and waist circumference and BMI, and negative correlations between BMI and antioxidative defense in the pre-metabolic syndrome patients show that this early stage preceding the metabolic syndrome is also characterized by atherosclerotic complication risks and evident hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2007;45:1140–4.

Corresponding author: Vesna Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, MD, PhD, Associated Professor, Krupanjska 24, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia Phone: +381-64-2028571, Fax: +381-11-2685357,

Received: 2006-11-1
Accepted: 2007-3-21
Published Online: 2007-09-11
Published in Print: 2007-09-01

©2007 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York