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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 1, 2009

Inter- and intra-individual variations of urinary endogenous metabolites in healthy male college students using 1H NMR spectroscopy

  • Eun Mi Park , Eunil Lee , Hyun Jin Joo , Eunha Oh , Joohyun Lee and Ji-Sung Lee


Background: Most human metabolomics studies have shown that spectral outputs of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting are strongly influenced by inter- and intra-individual variations; however, few studies have been performed to evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variations in urinary endogenous metabolites.

Methods: We recruited 30 male college students to evaluate the factors affecting intra- and inter-individual variations in urinary endogenous metabolites. Statistical analysis for variations in urinary metabolites was performed after eliminating outliers found in principal component analysis (PCA) plots.

Results: Inter-individual variations were relatively low for 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, citrate, dimethylglycine, and taurine, but high for trimethylaminoxide (TMAO), hippurate, and lactate. Intra-individual variations for 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylglycine, and taurine were relatively low, but high for TMAO and hippurate. The factors affecting inter-individual variation of lactate were age, body mass index, beverages, and alcohol, whereas the factors affecting intra-individual variation of lactate were age and fish. Kim Chi intake affected the inter-individual variation of succinate, citrate, TMAO, and hippurate; however, it did not affect the intra-individual variation of endogenous metabolites.

Conclusions: Our results showed that inter- and intra-individual variations in urinary endogenous metabolites were very large, and significant factors affecting inter- and intra-individual variation were diverse, even after eliminating outliers in PCA analysis.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2009;47:188–94.

Corresponding authors: Eunil Lee, MD, PhD, Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, 126-1, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705, Korea Phone: +82-2-920-6170, Fax: +82-2-927-7220, HyunJin Joo, PhD, Center for Food and Drug Inspection, Gyeongin Regional Food and Drug Administration, 120, Juan-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, Seoul 402-835, Korea Phone: +82-2-450-3367, Fax: +82-2-442-4622,

Received: 2008-8-5
Accepted: 2008-10-24
Published Online: 2009-02-01
Published in Print: 2009-02-01

©2009 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York

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