Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 16, 2005

Development of wet strength additives from wheat gluten

Dakai Ren and Kaichang Li
From the journal


Glyoxal-polyacrylamide (GPA) resin is widely used as a wet strength additive for various paper and paperboard products. However, GPA resin is derived from petrochemicals and contributes to contaminants in the recycling of papers. Wheat gluten is one of the most abundant proteins in nature. This research investigated how to convert gliadin, a key component of wheat gluten, to an effective temporary wet-strength additive. Gliadin was first modified with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA) to generate positively charged GTA-gliadin. Further reaction of GTA-gliadin with glyoxal yielded GTA-gliadin-glyoxal resins. Conditions for these two reactions were investigated to maximize the dry and wet strengths of GTA-gliadin-glyoxal-treated paper. At a dosage of 1 wt.%, GTA-gliadin-glyoxal resin was comparable to GPA resin in terms of enhancing the dry and wet strengths of treated paper.


Corresponding author. Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA Tel.: +1-541-737-8421 Fax: +1-541-737-3385


Chen, S.-L., Wang, S., Lucia, L.A. (2004) New insights into the fundamental nature of lignocellulosic fiber surface charge. J. Colloid Interface Sci.275:392–397.10.1016/j.jcis.2004.02.010Search in Google Scholar

Chiang, W.G.J., Tichenor, G.J.W. (1986) Novel graft polyacryreflamide copolymers and processes for their preparation and use. EP Patent18:7275.Search in Google Scholar

Dunlop-Jones, N. (1996) Wet strength chemistry. In: Paper Chemistry. Ed. Roberts, J.C. Blackie Academic & Professional, New York. pp. 98–119.10.1007/978-94-011-0605-4_7Search in Google Scholar

Espy, H.H. (1995) The mechanism of wet-strength development in paper: A review. Tappi J.78:90–99.Search in Google Scholar

Farley, C.E. (1994) Glyoxalated polyacrylamide resin. In: Wet-Strength Resins and Their Applications. Ed. Chan, L.L. Tappi Press, Atlanta, GA. pp. 45–61.Search in Google Scholar

Goulet, M.T., Makolin, R.J. (2002) Process for recycling paper broke containing wet strength additives. U.S. Patent6:419,787.Search in Google Scholar

Krull, L.H., Wall, J.S. (1969) Relation of amino acid composition and wheat protein properties. Baker's Dig.43:30–39.Search in Google Scholar

Shewry, P.R., Halford, N.G., Belton, P.S., Tatham, A.S. (2002) The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci.357:133–142.10.1098/rstb.2001.1024Search in Google Scholar

Stannett, V. (1967) Mechanisms of wet-strength development in paper. In: Surface Coating Related Paper and Wood Symposium. Syracuse, N.Y. pp. 269–299.Search in Google Scholar

Tandon, R., Bhardwaj, N.K., Mathur, R.M., Kulkarni, A.G. (2001) Contaminants in recycled paper and their removal. IPPTA.13:29–38.Search in Google Scholar

Tappi standard (1995) T 205. Sp-95, Forming handsheets for physical tests of pulp.Search in Google Scholar

Tappi standard (1996) T 494. Om-96, Tensile properties of paper and paperboard.Search in Google Scholar

Tappi standard (1998) T 402. Standard conditioning and testing atmospheres for paper, board, pulp handsheets, and related products.Search in Google Scholar

Woychik, J.H., Huebner, G.R.J., Dimler, R. (1964) Reduction and starch-gel electrophoresis of wheat gliadin and glutenin. Arch. Biochem. Biophy.105:151–155.10.1016/0003-9861(64)90246-2Search in Google Scholar

Yonezawa, D., Miwa, T., Awo, Y., Shimomura, H. (1966) Studies on wheat gluten proteins. I. Purification of glutenin by precipitation. Bull. Univ. Osaka Prefecture Ser. B Agric. Life Sci.18:61–68.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2005-11-16
Published in Print: 2005-11-01

©2005 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York